psy chp 2

  1. Scientific Method
    the procedures by which scientists conduct research, consisting of five basic processes: observation, prediction, testing, interpretation, and communication
  2. Theory
    a set of related assumptions from which scientists can make testable predictions
  3. Hypothesis
    a specific, informed, and testable prediction of the outcome of a particular set of conditions in a research design
  4. Replication
    the repetition of a study to confirm the results; essential to the scientific process
  5. Pseudoscience
    claims presented as scientific that are not supported by evidence obtained with the scientific method
  6. Research design
    plans of action for how to conduct a scientific study
  7. Variable
    a characteristic that changes, such as age, gender, weight, intelligence, anxiety, and extraversion
  8. Population
    the entire group population a researcher is interested in
  9. Samples
    subsets of the population studied in a research project
  10. Social Desirability Bias
    the tendency toward favorable self-presentation that could lead to inaccurate self-reports
  11. Descriptive Designs
    study designs in which the researcher defines a problem and variable of interest but makes no prediction and does not control or manipulate anything
  12. Case Study
    a study design in which a psychologist, often a therapist, observes one person over a long period of time
  13. Naturalistic Observation
    a study in which the researcher unobtrusively observes and records behavior in the real world
  14. Representative Sample
    a research sample that accurately reflects the population of people one is studying
  15. Correlational Designs
    studies that measure two or more variables and their relationship to one another; not designed to show causation
  16. Correlation Coefficient
    a statistic that ranges from -1.0 to +1.0 and assesses the strength and direction of association between two variables
  17. Experiment
    a research design that includes independent variables and random asssignment of participants to control and experimental groups or conditions
  18. Independent Variable
    a property that is manipulated by the experimenter under controlled conditions to determine whether it causes the predicted outcome of an experiment
  19. Dependent Variable
    in an experiment, the outcome or response to the experimental manipulation
  20. Random Assignment
    the method used to assign participants to different research conditions so that all participants have the same chance of being in any specific group
  21. Experimental Group
    a group consisting of those participants who will receive the treatment or whatever is predicted to change behavior
  22. Control Group
    a group of research participants who are treated in exactly the same manner as the experimental group, except that they do not receive the independent variable or treatment
  23. Placebo
    a substance or treatment that appears identical to the actual treatment but lacks the active substance
  24. Single-Blind Studies
    studies in which participants do not know the experimental conditions (group) to which they have been assigned
  25. Double-Blind Studies
    studies in which neither the participants nor the researchers administering the treatment know who has been assigned to the experimental or control group
  26. Experimenter Expectancy Effects
    results that occurs when the behavior of the participants is influenced by the experimenter’s knowledge of who is in the control group and who is in the experimental group
  27. Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
    a statement that affects events to cause the predictions to become true
  28. Meta-analysis
    a research and statistical technique for combining all research results on one question and drawing a conclusion
  29. Effect Size
    a measure of the strength of the relationship between two variables or the magnitude of an experimental effect
  30. Self-Reports
    written or oral accounts of a person’s thoughts, feelings, or actions
  31. Behavioral Measures
    measures based on systematic observation of people’s actions either in their normal environment or in a laboratory setting
  32. Physiological Measures
    measures of bodily responses, such as blood pressure or heart rate, used to determine changes in psychological state
  33. Multiple Measurement
    the use of several measures to acquire data on one aspect of behavior
  34. Stastistics
    Collection, analysis, interpreation, and presentation of numerical data
  35. Descriptive Statistics
    measure used to describe and summarize research data
  36. Mean
    the arithmetic average of a series of numbers
  37. Median
    the score that separates the lower half of scores from the upper half
  38. Mode
    a statistic that represents the most commonly occurring score or value
  39. Standard Deviation
    a stastistical measure of how much scores in a sample vary around the mean
  40. Ethics
    the rules governing the conduct of a person or group in general or in a specific situation—or more simply, standards of right and wrong
  41. Debriefing
    the explanation of the purposes of a study following data collection
  42. Institutional Review Boards (IRBs)
    organizations that evaluate research proposals to make sure research involving humans does not cause undue harm or distress
  43. Quasi-experimental Design
    research method similar to an experimental design except that it makes use of naturally occurring groups rather than randomly assiging subjects to groups
Card Set
psy chp 2