CBT Final

  1. Schema: abandonment/instability
    • The perceived instability or unreliability of those available for support and connection.
    • people wont be there for me
  2. Schema: mistrust/abuse
    the expectation that others will hurt, abuse, humiliate, cheat, lie manipulate or take advantage
  3. Schema: emotional deprivation and the 3 forms
    • Expectation that one's desire for a normal degree of emotional support will not be adequately met
    • deprivation of nurturance - absence of attention, affection, warmth, or companionship 
    • deprivation of empathy - absence of understanding, listening, self-disclosure, or mutual sharing of feelings 
    • deprivation of protection - absence of strength, direction, or guidance
  4. Schema: defectiveness/shame
    • The feeling that one is defective, bad, unwanted, inferior, or invalid or that one would be unlovable to others if exposed
    • i am flawed inside and nobody will love me in the know the real me
  5. Schema: social isolation/alienation
    the feeling that one is isolated from the rest of the world, different from other people, and/or not part of any group or community
  6. Schema: dependence/incompetence
    • belief that one is unable to handle one's everyday responsibilities in a competent manner
    • cannot cope with everyday life
  7. Schema: vulnerability to harm or illness schema
    • exaggerated fear that imminent catastrophe will strike at any time and that one will be unable to prevent it 
    • victim of fate/anything can go wrong at any moment and i am powerless
  8. Schema: enmeshment/undeveloped self
    forced closeness and feeling smothered
  9. Schema: failure
    i cannot thrive or achieve/everything is a failure
  10. Schema: entitlement/grandiosity
    • i am special and superior to others 
    • one feels like they should be able to do whatever they want
  11. Schema: insufficient self-control/self-discipline
    I cannot make myself do anything (work, school, etc.) and no distress tolerance
  12. Schema: subjugation
    • excessive surrendering control to others because one feels coerced
    • emotionally blackmailed to put other's needs first
  13. Schema: approval-seeking.recognition-seeking
    excessive emphasis on gain approval, recognition, or attention from other people, or fitting in, at the expense of developing a secure sense of self
  14. Schema: self-sacrifice
    i need to do things for others to be a good person
  15. Schema: negativity/pessimism
    excessive focus on the negatives in life
  16. Schema: emotional inhibition
    • hard time expressing one's self to others, usually to avoid disapproval of others, feeling shame, or losing control of one's impulses
    • can be cold/distant
  17. Schema: unrelenting standards/hypercriticalness
    one must strive to meet very high internalized standards of behavior and performance, usually to avoid criticism
  18. Schema: punitiveness
    • the belief that people should be harshly punished for making mistakes 
    • usually includes difficulty forgiving mistakes in oneself or others
  19. What are the three ways we adapt our schemas/schema coping styles, and which filter the presentation of those schemas?
    • surrender (freeze) - giving in to the schema and repeating them over and over
    • avoidance (flight) - finding ways to escape of block our schemas
    • overcompensation (fight) - doing the opposite of what our schemas make us feel
  20. Define schema
    broad pervasive patterns of beliefs about oneself in relation, formed in youth, derived from youthful negative experiences in which one's normative needs for care, safety, support, affection, etc. were not met, built up over one's life, that result in significant detriment to functionality and quality of life
  21. At what age range do schema form?
    5 through early teens
  22. Define an automatic negative thought
    simple declarative statements you make to yourself, usually about yourself, consistently negative, which most of the time go through your mind so quickly that they are unnoticed
  23. What are the steps of a self-perpetuating feedback loop of thought, feeling, and behavior
    schema ☞ event ☞ thoughts ☞ emotion ☞ body sensation ☞ behavior (back to thoughts and repeat) ☞ resulting in reinforced schema and thoughts
  24. define selective attention
    pay attention to events that only reinforce a schema, interpreting events in a way that reinforces a schema
  25. Albert Ellis created what therapy?
    Rational emotive therapy (RET) aka Rational emotive behavioral therapy (REBT)
  26. Aaron Beck created what therapy?
    Cognitive therapy or cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)
  27. Donald Meichenbaum created what type of therapy?
    • self-instructional training
    • stress inoculation therapy
  28. Who was the psychoanalytic thinker who most foreshadowed the ideas of CBT?
    Alfred Adler
  29. Cognitive Distortion: magnification (catastrophizing) or minimization
    exaggerate the importance of things, or inappropriately shrink things until they appear tiny
  30. Cognitive Distortion: emotional reasoning
    • assume that your negative emotions reflect the way things really are
    • i feel, therefore it must be true
  31. Cognitive Distortion: should statements
    • motivate yourself with shoulds and shouldn'ts, musts and oughts are also offenders.
    • the emotional consequence is guilt
  32. Cognitive Distortion: labeling and mislabeling
    • an extreme form of overgeneralization.  
    • instead of describing your error, you attach a negative label to yourself "i'm a loser"
    • the same of someone else's behavior "he's a moron"
  33. Cognitive Distortion: personalization
    you see yourself as the cause of some negative external event for which, in fact, you were not primarily responsible
  34. Cognitive Distortion: all-or-nothing thinking
    • you see things in black and white categories 
    • if your performance falls short, you see yourself as a total failure
  35. Cognitive Distortion: overgeneralization
    you see a single negative event as a never-ending pattern of defeat
  36. Cognitive Distortion: disqualifying the positive
    • reject positive experiences by insisting they do not count for some reason
    • you maintain a negative belief that is contradicted by your everyday experiences
  37. Cognitive Distortion: jumping to conclusions and 2 versions of it
    • you make a negative interpretation even though there are no definite facts that convincingly support your conclusion 
    • mind reading - arbitrarily conclude that someone is reacting negatively to you and do not bother to check it out
    • the fortune teller error - you anticipate that things will turn out badly and feel convinced that your prediction is an already-established fact
  38. Define cognitive restructuring
    teaching clients to identify, analyze, correct, and rewrite automatic thoughts
  39. What are the steps involved in cognitive restructuring
    • think back to the most recent bad mood
    • identify the emotions that were evoked 
    • rate the strength of the negative emotions
    • identify and write down actual ANT's
    • look at evidence for the thought being true
    • explain cognitive distortions 
    • look at the evidence for the ANT is not true 
    • help the client come up with a replacement thought 
    • finally have the client re-rate the strength of the negative emotion
  40. What is CBT's greatest success story?
    treatment of panic disorder
  41. How many sessions is the treatment for panic disorder?
  42. describe each session of Zuercher-White's CBT treatment for panic disorder
    • session 1 - assessment of anxiety symptoms and psychoeducation
    • session 2 - covers breathing retaining or diaphramatic breathing 
    • sessions 4-6 are devoted to cognitive restructuring work
    • sessions 7-9 we move on to the introceptive exposure model, which is training the client to elicit paic reponses, and then decondition that response 
    • sessions 10-12 provides a chance for the clients to continue meeting with the therapist to ensure exposure has worked and beginning the termination process
  43. define panic
    a fear response in the absence of actual danger
  44. define safety signals
    things  clients do to make themselves feel safe from panic
  45. What is activity scheduling and what is it used for?
    • the most basic of CBT interventions 
    • used foremost for depression, but also for anxiety, personality disorders, and other issues 
    • it is designed to get depressed people doing potentially enjoyable activities
  46. who developed schema therapy?
    Jeffery Young
  47. what are the differences between CBT and schema therapy?
    schema therapy focuses more on the therapeutic relationship, working on patient affect, more discussion about childhood experiences , and the role of developmental processes
  48. What is the main assumption of schema therapy?
    early maladaptive schema are self-maintaining feedback loops
  49. Who created DBT?
    Marsha M. Linehan
  50. Who are the target clients of DBT
    • mostly borderline clients
    • recently has been used with adolescence and chemical dependency treatment
  51. What are the four stages of DBT?
    • stage I - move the client towards sufficient behavior control to keep client alive and in treatment
    • stage II - addresses the client's inhibited emotional experience 
    • stage III - focuses on problems in living, with a goal that clients have a life of ordinary happiness and unhappiness, getting off the roller coaster of dramatic events brought on by maladaptive coping styles
    • stage IV - less clearly defined, but involves achieving a more profound sense of fulfillment
Card Set
CBT Final
CBT Final