superficial & deep back

  1. Extrinsic muscles are supplied nerves by the anterior rami (branch of a spinal nerve that exits the vertebral canal (opening in the vertebrae)  of spinal nerves
  2. extrinsic muscles consist of two layers of the back and their functions Image Upload 1Image Upload 2
    superficial connects the axial skeleton (skeleton that contains head and trunk of vertebrae) to the superior appendicular skeleton (portion of skeleton consisting of bone or cartilage that support appendages (external projection from body)

    intermediate is only apart of the axial skeleton, controls respiratory/proprioceptive (a stimuli produced and perceived by organism) movements
  3. intrinsic muscles function 3
    • associated with axial skeleton
    • act on vertebral column to control movements and maintain posture 
    • supplied nerves from the posterior rami (branch of spinal nerve that forms the dorsal root) of spinal nerves
  4. axio-appendicular musculature function and location
    • are muscles that extend between axial and appendicular (portion of skeleton consisting of bones or cartilage that support appendages) skeletons 
    • insert on the upper limb
    • innervated by anterior rami of spinal nerves (except trapezius)
  5. name the muscles of the superficial extrinsic 5Image Upload 3
    • trapezius
    • levator scapulae
    • rhomboid minor
    • rhomboid major
    • latissimus dorsi
  6. trapezius actions 4
    • descending - elevation of scapula
    • middle - retracts scapula (push arms bag)
    • ascending - depress scapula
    • descending + ascending - superior rotation of scapula (swinging of arm 360)
  7. trapezius innervate the cranial nerve XI spinal accessory nerve
    insertion at the acromion and spine of the scapular
  8. trapezius palsy cause and effect
    • a weakness in the trapezius muscle due to the result of injury to the CN XI spinal accessory nerve that innervates it
    • weakness of superior rotation of the shoulder (glenhumeral joint (ball and socket joint))
  9. how is trapezius treated
    surgically with muscle transfers of the levator scapulae and rhomboids
  10. latissimus dorsi broadest part of back ations 2
    • extends, adducts and medially rotates the humerus at the ball and sock joint
    • helps raise body toward arms while climbing
  11. innervation of the latissimus dorsi
    thoracodorsal nerve (branch of the brachial plexus (branch or network of vessels or nerves)) (think where brachial pulse is)

    intertubercular sulcus of humerus (a groove separating the larger and smaller nodes of the humerus)
  12. origin of latissimus doris
    spinous processes of T6-T12 (protrution at the posterior of the vertebrae (pokes out if too skinny)), thoracolumbar fascia (a deep membrane throughout the posterior thorax and abdomen)
  13. levator scapulae actions 2
    • elevates scapula
    • rotates glenoid cavity inferiorlyImage Upload 4
  14. levator scapulae innervation
    dorsal scapular nerve (branch of brachial plexus)

    medial border of scapula, superior root of scapular spine (neck to shoulder area muscle)
  15. origin of levator scapulae
    transverse processes of C1-C4 (same bones but side protrusions inside of middle main)
  16. rhomboid minor and major actions 3
    **minor is above and major is below**
    • retract scapula (pull arm back)
    • inferior rotation of scapula (praise with arms up)
    • fix scapula to thoracic wall
  17. rhomboid minor and major innervation
    dorsal scapular nerve (branch of brachial plexus)

    • MI-medial end of scapular spine
    • MJ-medial border of scapula
  18. rhomboid minor and major origin
    • MI-nuchal ligament & spinal processes C7/T1
    • MJ-spinous processes of T2-T5Image Upload 5
  19. Image Upload 6
    controls respiratory/proprioceptive (produced and sensed stimuli) movements
  20. Image Upload 7
    intrinsic back muscles name and actions
    • erector spinae (group of 3)
    • extends vertebral column
    • some roation of vertebral column
    • act on vertebral column to control movements and maintain posture
  21. paraspinous muscles actionsImage Upload 8
    act on vertebral column to control movements and maintain posture
  22. back sprain 
    grade 1 sprain
    grade 2 sprain
    grade 3 sprain
    • normal looking tissue
    • 1 - stretching with some tears
    • 2 - larger tear
    • 3 - complete tear
  23. back sprain defined and cause
    injury where only ligamentous tissue or a ligament attached to the bone is dislocated

    due to strong contractions from movements of the vertebral column
  24. back strain definition, cause, muscles involved
    injury due to stretching or microscopic tearing of muscle fibers

    results from overly strong muscle contraction 

    erector spinae muscles are often involved **muscle spams may response to inflammation)
  25. ramus
    any part or organ that branches from another part
  26. rami spinal nerve descriptionImage Upload 9
    muscle nerves go to intrinsic muscles of the back which help with sensation
    • spinal nerve emerges laterally from the IV foramen Image Upload 10
    • spinal nerve then divides into 2 major branches ventral (anterior) and dorsal (posterior) primary rami
    • posterior go to back intrinsic muscles
    • anterior go to body wall and limbs (extrinsic back muscles)
  27. 4 innervations of the back
    • spinal accessory nerve
    • cutaneous branches of posterior rami
    • dorsal scapular nerve
    • thoracodorsal nerve
  28. spinal accessory nerve (cranial nerve XI) location and possible injury
    Image Upload 11
    this is front it runs down the back between scapula and spine
    • travel from cranium through the neck and back deep to trapezius
    • superficial nerve

    penetrating or blunt injury
  29. cutaneous branches of posterior rami functionImage Upload 12
    provides cutaneous sensory innervation (GSA) to the back
  30. Image Upload 13Image Upload 14
    dorsal scapular nerve C5
    emerges between anterior and middle neck muscles posteriorly deep through levator and rhomoids

    innervates rhomboid minor and major and levator through separate branch
  31. thoracodorsal innervation
    latissimus dorsi (C6-C8)Image Upload 15
  32. cutaneous branches of posterior rami function
    • provides cutaneous sensory innervation (GSA) to the back
    • (the branch of nerves running out of the middle of the back from neck to mid back)
  33. dermatomes defined
    • unilateral area of skin innervated by (GSA) fibers of a single spinal nerve
    • helps find site of damage in neurology
    • 30
    • 7 cervical C2-C8
    • 12 thoracic (T1-T12)
    • 5 lumbar (l1-l5)
    • 5 sacral (S1-5)
    • 1 coccygeal
  34. Image Upload 16
  35. cutaneous nerves
    supplies an area of the skin that is related to a peripheral nerve

    • **nerve contains fibers from several individual spinal nerves
    • **are broader and wider than an area supplied by only a single spinal nerve
  36. Image Upload 17
  37. suboccipital triangle is bounded (demarcated) by what 3 muscles
    Image Upload 18
    • rectus capitis posterior major on superomedial margin
    • obliquus capitis inferior on inferolateral margin
    • obliquus capitis superior on superolateral margin
    • suboccipital n (c1)
    • vertebral artery
  38. vertebral artery Image Upload 19
    travels through transverse foramen C6-1 passes medially along posterior arch of C1 then passes superiorly through the foramen magnum to supply brain

    **c7 has a transverse foramina but vertebral arteries dont run through then**
  39. *** when blood flow is reduced like prolong turning of head may cause reduced flow of blood to brain***
  40. deep posterior neck muscle actions 2
    • use of atlanto-occipital joint (synovial joint)
    • extension
    • lateral flexion
    • Image Upload 20
  41. head rotation using the atlanto-axial joint
    rotation of muscles contract
    • stemocleidomastoid
    • semispinalis capitis

    • obliquus capitis inferior
    • rectus capitis posterior minor and major
    • longissimus capitis
    • splenius capitis
  42. Image Upload 21
Card Set
superficial & deep back
RUSM superficial & deep back WEEK1 FUNDAMENTALS 1