vertebral columns

  1. osteology of the back functions of the clavicle, scapula, ribs, and vertebrae 
    • protects spinal cord and nerves
    • supports the trunk and its rigidity 
    • important for posture and locomotion
  2. vertebral column 33 bones
  3. vertebral column breakdown plus bone amount (top to bottom)
    • cervical - 7
    • thoracic - 12
    • lumbar - 5
    • sacrum - 5 (fused seg)
    • coccygeal - 4 (fused after 30 yrs.)
  4. 3 movements of the vertebral column and involvement of the vertebrae
    • flexion & extension (cerv. lum.) - forward and backward bend
    • lateral flexion & extension (cerv. lum.) - side press
    • rotation (cerv. thor.) - turn of waist and head
  5. 31 pairs of spinal nerves break down of number and location 5
    • 8 cervical
    • 12 thoracic
    • 5 lumbar
    • 5 sacral
    • 1 coccygeal
  6. **31 pairs of spinal nerves form PNS**
    **spinal cord enlargements located in cerv. lumb.have more nerves for innervation (leads to other organs) of limbs
    • cervical enlargement runs rom cervical to thoracic
    • lumbar enlargement runs from lumbar down to coccygeal
  7. 3 meninges covering of spinal cord and description/location
    • dura mater - outermost layer, thick fibrous tiss
    • arachnoid mater - filmy layer deep under dura mater
    • pia mater - layer covering SP
  8. denticulate ligament function and location
    • extension of pia mater that anchors SP to dura mater
    • found at midpoint between 2 spinal nerves
  9. axial skeleton **contains everything except limbs and pelvis**
    appendicular skeletons **contains limbs and pelvis only**
  10. Axial skeleton bones 5
    • cranium
    • vertebral column
    • ribs
    • manubrium
    • sternum
  11. appendicular skeleton 
    Upper - 8
    lower - 7
    U- clav, scapulae, humeri, radii, ulnae, carpals, metacar, phalan

    L-pelvis, femora, tibiae, fibulae, tarsals, meta, phalan
  12. flexion and extension of back muscles used
    extension muscles - 2
    flexion muscles - 2
    E - rectus abdominis & pectus major ***
  13. C4, T2, L2Image Upload 1
    • derived from centrum
    • epiphyseal rim (derived from anular epiphysis) **pink area**
  14. vertebral archs
    articular processes
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    • pedicles
    • lamina

    • spinous process
    • transverse process
    • vertebral foramen (where spinal cord passes)
    • vertebral canal **the foramen together**(vertebral foramina is where spinal cord passes)
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    the joining (articulation) of inferior articular facet of 1 vertebra with superior articular facet of the next

    **damage of these joints because so close will affect adjacent spinal nerve
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    • cervical vertebrae location C3-7
    • large vertebral foramina to accommodate enlargement of the spinal cord
  18. uncinate processImage Upload 6
    outgrowths on the uncinate process can compress nerve and vertebral artery leading to chronic back pain

    • **spinal nerve goes through IV foramina
    • **vertebral arteries pass through transverse foramina

    ****mini stroke, common in old people
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    groove for vertebral artery right below lateral masses
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    atlanto-occipital joint head flexion and extension
    atlanto-axial joint rotation
  21. burst (jefferson) fracture of C1 explained
    • compressive loads along the cervical spine results in the occipital condyles being driven into the lateral masses of C1
    • is a 4 part fractuce with double fractures through anterior and posterior arches
  22. Hangman’s fracture explained
    Pedicles fractured posterior to superior articular facets due to abrupt hyperextension

    **common result of falls and hitting chin on wheel in accident
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    Transverse costal facet

    Superior costal facet

    Costal tubercle of rib

    Head of rib (where it joins vert)
  24. Thoracic vertebrae function
    Provide attachment for ribs

    Stability of trunk

    **smaller vertebrae foramen compared to cerv and lumb

    **look like a moose
  25. Lumbar vertebrae functionImage Upload 11
    Place of articular facets allows flexion and extension and lateral flexion

    Vertebral foramen large to accommodate lumbar enlargement of spinal cord

    Large ventral bodies because it bears most weight
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    Sacrum has 5 fused segments

    Auricular surface (joined with pelvis forming sacroiliac joint

    Anterior sacral foramina

    Sacral hiatus

    Sacral canal (continuation with vertebral canal

    Superior articular facet
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    Coccygeal vertebrae are highly variable and can range from 3-5 (the end of the tail bone)
  28. Intervertebral discs (inbetween bones as cushions) functions and composed of
    Strong attachment between vertebrae, forms cartilaginous joint

    Weight bearing shock absorption

    Composed of annulus fibrosus (concentric rings of fibrocartilage that connect adjacent vertebral bodies)

    **no discs between atlanto-occipital, -axial joint, sacral segments, and coccygeal segments

    20% of vertebral column length
  29. Herniation/protrusion of intervertebral discs explained
    Occurs when the nucleus pulposus protrudes the annulus fibrosis and compresses the spinal nerves exiting the IV foramen or the vertebral artery exiting the transverse foramen

    Occurs posterolaterally where annulus fibrosis is thin and does not receive support from posterior longitudinal ligament

    Stress resistant decrease with age

    Most common in cervical and lumbar (L4/5 or L5/S1)Image Upload 14
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    Ligaments of vertebrae 6


    Posterior longitudinal – narrow and weaker, runs within the vertebral canal along posterior aspect of vertebral vertebral bodies and IV discs

    Prevents hyperflexion

    Anterior longitudinal – strong broad fibrous band runs along anterior vertebral bodies

    Prevents hyperextension


    Ligamentum flavum – elastic yellow bands of tissue connecting laminae of adjacent vertebrae (look up laminae)limits flexion

    Supraspinous – runs along tips of spinous processes from C7 to sacrum

    Interspinous ligament – connects adjoining spinous processes
  31. Image Upload 16Nuchal ligament location and function
    Thick fibroelastic median band running from the external occipital protuberance and posterior border of the foramen magnum to C7 spinous process

    Attaches to the spinous processes of cervical vertebrae

    Allows for attachment of back muscles where the spinous processes of cervical vertebrae are shorter
  32. Crush/compression fractures explained and cause
    Sudden forceful flexion results in fracture of one or more vertebrae

    Can also be accompanied by dislocation and fracture of the articular facets between 2 vertebrae with rupture of interspinous ligs.
  33. Chance fracture explained
    Flexion injury of spine (lumb)

    Anterior compression fracture + fractures across transverse processes
  34. Whiplash
    Severe hyperextension, anterior longitudinal lig is severely stretched and may tear

    Can be accompanied by hyperflexion injury of vertebral column as head rebounds after hyperextension
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  36. 3 meniges
    Dura mater – outermost layer, thick, fibrous tissue

    Arachnoid mater – filmy layer deep to dura mater

    Pia mater – layer covering spinal cord
  37. Denticulate ligament
    Extension of pia mater, anchors spinal cord to dura mater, found midpoint between 2 spinal nerves
  38. 3 associated spaces of the meningeal coverings of the spinal cord
    Epidural – space between canal and dura mater

    Subdural – space between dura mater and arach

    Subarachnoid – space between arach and pia, contains cerebrospinal fluid
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  41. Cervical nerves course superior to their corresponding vertebra while others course inferior to their corresponding vertebra

    C1 SN course superior to C1 vertebra

    C8 SN courses inferior to C7 vertebra and superior to T1 vertebra

    T1 SN courses inferior to T1 vertebra
  42. Intervertebral protrusions and spinal compression
    Cerv and thora regions, when the IV disc protrudes, the SN coursing through the associated IV foramen will be compressed

    For lumb, there is a diff in where a spinal nerve exits and where it compresses ex:L4 SN exits between L4/5 but sneak by against the body of L4 vertebra so the L5 nerve is compressed by the protrusionIn cerv and lum region, the SN with the number of inferior vertebra but by 2 diff mechanisms
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    3 types of punctures for spinal tap and anesthesia

    Entrance and reasons for puncture performed
    Lumbar puncture 1/2 – enter into lumbar cistern through L4 level

    Collect CSF for evaluating infections of CNS

    Spinal anesthesia 1/2 – anesthetic inserted in same as lumbar, complete anesthesia below wait

    Risks leakage of CSF

    Epidural anesthia 1/2/3 – inserted in extradural space in same as lumb or sacral hiatus
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Card Set
vertebral columns
RUSM vertebral column WEEK 1 FUNDAMENTALS 1