language of Anatomy/intro to medical imaging

  1. standard anatomic position
    the position in which the person faces forward with palms facing up and feet forward and the same position from behind
  2. superior 
    • toward head (a  brain makes you superior)
    • toward feet (inferior means you are below others)
  3. directional terms 8
    • superior
    • inferior
    • anterior
    • posterior
    • medial 
    • lateral
    • proximal
    • distal
  4. anterior 
    • toward the front of body (ventral)
    • toward back of body (dorsal)
  5. medial
    • toward midline of the body
    • away from midline of body
  6. proximal
    • close to the origin of the point of attachment
    • away from the origin of the point of attatchment
  7. superficial depth
    deep depth
    • toward or at the surface of the body
    • away from the surface deep inside
  8. hand directions
    foot directions
    • palmar
    • dorsal

    • sole
    • dorsal
  9. supine
    lateral recumbent
    • facing up (superman upside down)
    • face down (ass up)
    • laying on side (decubitus aka recumbent)
  10. bilateral
    paired structures that have a left and right
  11. unilateral
    structures only located on one side
  12. ipsilateral
    structures located on the same side of body (left leg, left arm)
  13. contralateral
    • structures on opposite side of the body
    • (left leg, right leg)
  14. types of body positions 3
    • supine
    • prone
    • lateral recumbent
  15. types of laterality 4
    • bilateral
    • unilateral
    • ipsilateral
    • contralateral
  16. types of movement 2
    • flexion
    • extension
  17. flexion
    • movement that decreases the angle between body parts
    • could also refer to the spine and bending forward
  18. extension
    • refers to the movement that increases the angle between two body parts
    • refers to bending backwards from a standing position
  19. medial rotation
    rotation toward the midline of the body (grab door (stomach) and close it)
  20. lateral rotation
    • rotation away from the midline
    • (turn the knob and open the door)
  21. types of movement 3
    • elevation
    • depression
    • circumduction`
  22. elevation movement
    refers to movement in superior direction (shrug shoulders)
  23. depression movement
    refers to the movement in the inferior direction (slouched shoulders)
  24. circumduction movements
    • refers to the movement in a circle
    • (swing arm in big circle)
  25. body planes 3
    • transverse plane
    • coronal plane
    • sagittal plane
  26. transverse plane
    • horizontal plane 
    • cuts body in half separating superior and inferior
  27. coronal plane
    • vertically oriented 
    • divides body into anterior and posterior
  28. sagittal plane
    • vertically oriented
    • divides body into left and right parts
    • (down the middle)
  29. arteries direction
    veins direction
    • carry blood away from heart (take HE away from the heart)
    • carry blood toward heart (vain is all about you, everything comes back to you)
  30. arteries carry O2 rich blood away from heart (sometimes) to the capillary bed. They go from larger arteries to smaller aterioles
    veins carry O2 deoxy blood to the heart from the capillary bed to tributaries (small to larger tubes) which contributes to larger veins
  31. anastomosis
    junction of 2 or more arteries or veins
  32. 3 functions of the lymphatic system
    • assists in draining tissue fluid and leaked plasma proteins from blood
    • removes debris from cellular breakdown and infection
    • regulates the solution that bathes the surrounding cells (interstitial fluid)
  33. lymph travels through vessel through lymph nodes (follows pathway to veins)
  34. 4 importance of the history and physical exams
    • decide if imaging study is needed
    • helps radiologist determine if the study order is appropriate for the issue
    • helps radiologist answer the question of the requester
    • context for radiologist to use to interpret study
  35. 7 types of medical imaging today
    • radiography - I
    • computed tomography - I
    • nuclear medicine - I
    • ultrasonography - NI
    • MRI - NI
    • angiography - maybe
    • interventional radiology - maybe
  36. 3 types of radiography x-ray imaging - I
    • fluoroscopy
    • mammography
    • computer tomography (CT)
  37. types of computer technology imaging - I
    CT angiography
  38. 2 types of nuclear medicine imaging - I
    • single photo emission tomography (SPECT)
    • positron emission tomography (PET)
  39. Type of ultrasonography
    Doppler ultrasound
  40. 2 types of MRI
    • MR angiography
    • MR spectroscopy
  41. ionizing radiation function
    • radiation that has enough energy to remove charged particles from atoms creating ions
    • (occurs in the gamma ray of the spectrum)
    • (can damage human cells leading to cancer and gene mutations)
  42. 3 names of theories of radiation danger
    • linear extrapolation
    • threshold theory
    • hermetic theory
  43. Radiation theory of linear extrapolation explained
    • used to determine the amount of risk of the radiation exposure
    • assumes all radiation is harmful but not as harmful if in small amounts
  44. Theory of radiation danger threshold theory explained
    assumes there is a threshold in which radiation does become harmful  but small doses are not
  45. theories of radiation danger hermetic theory explained
    small doses of radiation are beneficial until a threshold is passed
  46. **always orient to images in the anterior projection or coronal plane despite the image taken** everything as standard anatomical position!!
    **orient transverse images as if we are standing at foot of bed looking toward the head  no matter images obtained***

    **our left their right vice versa**
  47. **axial cross section imaging slices to have many images and some will disappear as it goes in and out of the plane
  48. Image Upload 1
Card Set
language of Anatomy/intro to medical imaging
RUSM language of anatomy/intro to medical imaging WEEK 1 FUNDAMENTALS 1