Gynecological Oncology

  1. List the different types of Gynecological cancers *(in order of popularity) (5)
    • Uterine Cancers
    • Ovarian, fallopian tube and pertioneal Cancers
    • Cervical Cancer
    • Vulvar Cancer
    • Vaginal Cancer
  2. Two examples of more rare conditions that would be considered Gynecological cancers
    • Uterine sarcoma 
    • Gestational Trophoblastic Disease (GTD)
  3. 5 options of treatment in Gynecological Cancer
    • Surgery*
    • Chemotherapy*
    • Genetic Counseling 
    • Nutrition
    • Radiation*
  4. Cervical cancer in almost all cases is caused by _____ ______ _____ (____). _______ that protect against this can greatly reduce the risk of contracting Cervical Cancer
    • Human Papillomavirus (HPV)
    • Vaccines
  5. Having a _____ test to check for abnormal cells in the cervix or a test check for ____ can find cells that may become abnormal and lead to cervical cancer. These cells can be treated ______ the cancer forms
    • Pap test 
    • HPV
    • before
  6. Cervical cancer can usually be cured if it has been found and treated in the ______ stages.
  7. Uterine cancer typically starts in the ________ (define). This is generally called _______ cancer.
    • endometrium: inner lining of the uterus
    • endometrial cancer
  8. ______, certain ______ conditions, and taking _______ alone without progesterone can increase the risk of endometrial cancer
    • Obesity
    • inherited 
    • estrogen
  9. The fifth leading cause of cancer death in women in the U.S. These cancers are often found at _______ stages (why).
    • Ovarian, fallopian tube and peritoneal cancers
    • advanced stages
    • because they may not cause early symptoms and there are no good screening tests for them
  10. Vulvar cancer usually forms ______, according to the National Cancer Institute (NCI). Infection with certain types of _____ _______ causes about half of all vulvar cancers. ______ may reduce the risk of vulvar cancer
    • slowly (over a number of years)
    • human papillomavirus (HPV)
    • Vaccines (HPV)
  11. Abnormal cells growing on the surface the vulvar skin for a long time
    Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia (VIN)
  12. Vaginal cancer occurs in the ____ _____ that leads from the cervix to the outside of the body. The most common type of vaginal cancer, called _____ ____ _______, begins in the thin, flat cells that line the vagina. Another type of vaginal cancer, known as _________, begins in cells that make mucus.
    • birth canal
    • squamous cell carcinoma
    • adenocarcinoma
  13. Most vaginal cancers are caused by ______ _________ and _______ can reduce the risks
    • human papillomavirus
    • vaccines (HPV)
  14. Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) is a term for rare ______ that form in the tissue that surrounds an egg after it is _______. This tissue is made of ________ cells, which connect the _______ _____ to the wall of the uterus and form part of the ________.
    • tumors 
    • fertilized
    • trophoblast cells 
    • fertilized egg
    • placenta
  15. In GTD, a _____ forms instead of a healthy fetus
  16. The two main types of GTD are _______ moles and ______ ______ ______.
    • hydatidiform moles
    • gestational trophoblastic neoplasia
  17. Hydatidiform moles are also called ______ pregnancies and are more _______.  Most hydatidiform moles are ______ (meaning), but the sometimes become cancer. Gestational trophoblastic neopliasia is always _______
    • molar 
    • common
    • benign (not cancer)
    • malignant
  18. The only one of the Gynecological cancers that can be screened for
    cervical cancer
  19. Hemoglobin count normal range for males and females
    • males: 14
    • females: 12-13
  20. When the hemoglobin gets a little lower, the patient is relatively fine (explain). However, if it gets too low, the patient becomes ______ and will need a _____ ______.
    • may experience some shortness of breath
    • anemic 
    • blood transfusion
  21. Chemotherapy reduces the risk that cancer cells ________. Radiation takes on any residual cancers and is much more of a _______ approach.
    • metastasize 
    • locallized
  22. PARP inhibitor
    Poly-ADP ribose polymerase inhibitor: a group of pharmacological inhibitors of the enzyme
  23. Poly-ADP ribose polymerase functions in _____ ______
    DNA repair
  24. PARP inhibitors are developed for multiple indications, the most important is treatment of _____. Several forms of which are more ______ on PARP than regular cells, making PARP an attractive target for for ______ therapy
    • cancer
    • dependent 
    • cancer
  25. PARP inhibitors appear to improve progression. Name the general exception
    survival in women w/ recurrent platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer, evidenced mainly by Olaparib added to conventional treatment
  26. PARPs, in addition to cancer therapy, are also a potential treatment for acute life-threatening diseases. Name three
    • stroke
    • myocardial infraction
    • long term neuro-degenerative diseases
  27. Oxycoton can be used to alleviate the ______ from chemotherapy. It may also result in some _______
    • pain
    • diziness
  28. Endoscopy
    procedure in which doctors use specialized instruments to view and operate inside the body
  29. DVT
    Deep venous thrombosis: build up in vein that interrupt the flow of blood.
  30. For tumors associated with DVTs, ______ (blood thinner) works best
  31. Due to endometrial cancer, function can be lost in the kidneys which can lead to need for a ________ tube
    nephrostomy (helps patient urinate)
  32. Ovarian cancer has a tendency to metastasize everywhere so resection is not the most effective approach. (explain)
    Resection is most effective with tumors that can be seen. However, ovarian cancer can metastasize in multitudes and microscopically, and if it cannot be clearly seen it can not be cut out. In other words, the cancer will persist
  33. DVTs can lead to ______ and are most dangerous when they begin to ______. Where are they most deadly?
    • swelling
    • travel 
    • heart and lungs
  34. Chemo can administered _______ or ________. Which is more dangerous?
    • intravenously (IV) or intraperitoneally (IP)
    • IP
  35. Biopsy
    an examination of tissue removed from a living body to discover the presence, cause or extent of a disease
  36. Ascites
    fluid build up in the abdomen as a result of cancer
  37. DVTs can be can be treated with blood thinners, name the main two used. Then name two newer options
    • Lovenox *(the gold standard)
    • Coumadin (Warfarin)

    • Eliquis (pill)
    • Zeralto (pill)
  38. Falling can lead to bleeds (internal or external) which are more dangerous with the ______ option of blood thinners and less so with _____ (explain)
    • newer options (Eliquis & Zeralto)
    • Lovenox 
    • because Lovenox doesn't stay in the system nearly as long
  39. Anti-nausea options for chemo patients:
    • Zofran*
    • Compazine
  40. ______ works better with cancer related nausea as opposed to chemo related nausea (sometimes)
  41. Chemo drugs for Gynecological cancer (2)
    • Carbo-platin family: Carbo-platinum (better tolerated by patients)
    • taxol
  42. Taxol is likely to induce _______
  43. ______ may help with pain/allergies in patients. However, the scientific mechanism is not completely understood
  44. Neulasta
    to induce a very high white-count
  45. Skin discolorations/lesions after chemo with irregular borders can be troublesome (explain)
    can be symptoms of melanoma
  46. Website for checking drug interactions
  47. Name four anti-depression drugs and the general mechanism of how they work
    • Wellbutrin
    • Prozac
    • Zolof
    • Selexa 
    • Blocking seratonin and the cholinergic system
  48. Pericardial recess
    a cyst around the heart
  49. Diabetes leads to poor _____ function which leads to poor blood flow, particularly against gravity (example). Diabetes also leads to excessive urinating which leads to _______
    • nerve
    • example: blood flowing from the feet to the heart
    • dehydration
  50. When there is too much calcium in the body, it can lead to ______ and ______ especially if the patient is dehydrated
    lethargy & seizures
  51. Doxil
    Chemo that doesn't cause hair loss or neuropathy but causes redness in hands and feet (sometimes) which can lead to blisters or pain
  52. Why does Doxil cause redness
    It stays in the body longer and escapes via capillaries leading to inflammation or ulcers (in mouth)
  53. Barrett's esophagus
    Lining connecting mouth to the stomach is replaced with tissue similar to that found in intestinal lining. This leads to heartburn
  54. Anxeity can cause ______ of the esophagus all the way up to the throat which can be pronounced by _______
    • spasms
    • Barrett's
  55. Vulva cancer isn't responding to chemo, depending of the patient, another treatment option could be ________
  56. The premise of immunotherapy (general)
    stimulate the immune system and make it fight off the cancer without the chemo
  57. chemical pneumonitis
    inflammation of the lungs caused by aspirating or inhaling irritants
  58. Dizziness from low blood pressure in patient, so the brain was not getting enough oxygen which could lead to collapse (explain)
    As she stood up a lot of the blood stayed in her legs (vaso-vagal-reaction)
  59. Almost all women who have surgery have problems _______ afterwards (explain)
    urinating (they may not empty well)
  60. Two weeks after chemo begins is when the patient runs the highest risk for _______.
  61. vasovagal reaction
    A sudden drop in heart rate and blood pressure leading to fainting, often in reaction to a stressful trigger.
Card Set
Gynecological Oncology
Day 3-4