disease or dysfunction of one or more peripheral nerves, typically causing numbness or weakness in hands and feet
Chemotherapy is particularly dangerous for the liver meaning it is _______
an orange-yellow pigment formed in the liver by the breakdown of hemoglobin and excreted in bile. *also aids in the digestion of food
Colon cancer can lead to perforation of the peritoneal cavity which leads to _______
Pancreatic cancer is a highly ______ malignancy, the ______ leading in cancer-related deaths in the U.S.
Pancreatic cancer is second only to _______ cancer as a cause of digestive cancer-related death.
______ ______ is the only potentially curative treatment for pancreatic cancer
______ presentation is characteristic of pancreatic cancer and prognosis is still _____ even after complete resection. In addition only 15-20% are candidates for _________
surgical removal of the pancreas
The commonly used term pancreatic cancer usually refers to a _____ ________ of the pancreas including(its sub-types), which represents about ____ percent of all pancreatic neoplasms.
a malignant tumor formed from glandular structures in epithelial tissue.
Of the several sub-types of ductal adenocarcinoma, most share a similar ____ long-term prognosis, with the exception of _____ carcinomas, which have a _____ prognosis.
The more inclusive term "exocrine pancreatic neoplasms" includes all tumors that are related to the _______ _______ and _____ cells and their ______ cells (including pancreatoblastoma), and is preferred.
pancreatic ductal and acinar cells
More than 95% of malignant neoplasms of the pancreas arise from the _______ elements. Neoplasms arising from the ______ pancreas (pancreatic neuroendocrine [islet cell] tumors) comprise no more than 5% of pancreatic neoplasms.
The most common presenting symptoms in patients with exocrine pancreatic cancer are _____, ______ and _____ loss.
pain, jaundice and weight loss
In a multi-institutional series of 185 patients with exocrine pancreatic cancer diagnosed over a three year period found the top 8 symptoms at diagnosis were
- weight loss
- abdominal pain
- epigastric pain
- dark urine
- back pain
- diarrhea vomiting
In general, the most frequent signs were (7)
- right upper quadrant mass
- courvoisier's sign
- epigastric mass
- asthenia: abnormal physical weakness/lack of energy
- jaundice: yellowing of liver, eyes, skin through biliary tree either intrapatically or extrapatically
- steatorrhea: fatty stools
The pancreas creates enzymes to help digest fats, _______ becomes possible when these enzymes are compromised
- hepatomegaly: enlarged liver
- cachexia: aka wasting syndrome, it is a general state of ill health w/ weight or muscle loss
- courvoisier's sign: enlarged gall bladder
- ascites: accumulation of fluid (pale, clear and yellow) in the peritoneal cavity (abdomen)
kidney retains filtrate/fluid due to blockages "kinks"
Hydronephrosis can lead to ________ which leads to _______ failure
swollen due to pressure from within; bloated
crystallized calcium deposits in kidney, ureter, urethra