1. avian cage requirements
    • easy to clean/disinfect, no galvanized wire (zinc) or lead
    • bird can stretch wings
    • off the ground
    • no wood chips or corn
    • box/nest for privacy, enrichment
    • strategic food/water to prevent contamination
  2. avian perch requirements
    • not abrasive like cement or sandpaper
    • toes wrap around 75%
    • variable diameter
  3. avian balanced nutrition %
    • 70-80% pellets
    • 20% dark green or yellow veggies
    • 5% seeds and nuts
    • monitor body weight!
  4. new bird exam testing
    • CBC/chem, protein electrophoresis
    • gram stain/cytology on feces, direct and float
    • screen for diseases: chlamydia, beak and feather (circovirus), polyomavirus, bornavirus, aspergillus
    • radiographs for baseline
    • don't really vax
  5. things to remember about bird restraint
    • stabilize first!  
    • protect handlers, owner
    • use a towel and close the windows
    • don't compress the keel!!!
    • hyperthermia, fractures
    • parrots like to hold something with their feet
    • 1st and 3rd fingers on mandibles, stretch neck up
    • release bird to bottom of cage so it won't fall
  6. how to tell immature birds
    • dull colored feathers
    • shorter, immature feathers
    • beak color
    • young psittacines have dark iris, macaws/african greys have white or yellow, amazons have red-orange
  7. sexual dimorphism in birds and chromosomes
    • most monomorphic or only slightly dimorphic
    • white cockatoos-dark iris in young, males are dark, females are red.  
    • Cere color - male blue or female red
    • DICHROMATIC PARROTS - ECLECTUS (males are green, females are red, blue, purple)
    • Males have a phallus in the vent, just put a finger in there
    • DNA probe most common way (vessels from shell), male are ZZ, female are ZW
  8. length of exam and length of bird recovering from restraint
    5-10min exam, 3 min recovery
  9. avian oral cavity
    • let them scream at you, use soft tube/gauze to examine.  Halitosis can be infection
    • moist, pink or melanistic normal
    • shouldn't be plugs or mucus
    • choana is slit on roof of mouth, has papillae
    • tongue is muscular and has cartilage and bone
    • glottis is big hole at base of tongue, no epiglottis
  10. bird beak
    • smooth and shiny (keratin), must have perfect alignment.  
    • cartilaginous when young, can deviate from syringe-feeding on same side
  11. bird cere and mites
    • where nostrils are, connection of beak to head.
    • fleshy, firm, smooth.
    • brown can be hypertrophy in budgies
    • irregular texture, holes, honeycomb can be mites (knemidokoptes)
  12. bird eye reflexes
    • palpebral, PLR, flare, anisocoria
    • may be too scared to menace
    • can't see optic disc.  Reflective avascular retina.  Look for hemorrhage etc.
  13. assessing dehydration in a bird and how to fix it
    • skin looks wrinkled
    • basilic/ulnar vein should be turgid and refill promptly when emptied
    • use warmed fluids and replace acute over 1-4h (chronic 12-24h like mammals)
    • SHOCK DOSE: 90ml/kg IV
  14. uropygial gland in birds
    • oil gland at base of tail (birds have no sweat glands, but have mucous and sebaceous glands).
    • tuft of down feathers wick secretions, not essential for waterproofing but conditions feathers/beak/skin. 
    • antibacterial, precursors to vit D
    • site of neoplasia or infection
    • vit A deficiency can cause probs here
    • some birds don't have one (ostrich and emu and woodpeckers, etc)
  15. trachea in a bird
    • complete rings
    • bifurcates at level of heart
    • syrinx is voice box.
  16. air sacs in birds
    bronchi to caudal air sacs to paleopulmo of lungs to (used air) cranial air sacs to trachea out. Should hear almost nothing.
  17. blood feathers
    growing feathers that will bleed if cut, plucking may damage follicle
  18. bands on feathers
    stress bars, black or white
  19. position of wings over tail
    should cross over each other on top of tail
  20. bumblefoot
    • pododermatitis
    • abnormal wear and inflammation of plantar part of foot
  21. normal bird droppings contain
    • feces - dark brown, formed
    • urates - cream colored, can be chalky or milky
    • urine - clear, can't concentrate
    • NO BLADDER, ureters into cloaca, reflux into intestines where H2O resorbed.  Stress = immediate defecation = dehydration
  22. signs of avian illness
    • inattention - should be alert esp at vet.  Sleeping is bad!
    • changes in appetite, feces, decreased energy, yawning, fluffed up feathers, increased RR, change in voice, d/c or sneezing, asymmetry, soiled feathers around vent.
  23. where to give SQ fluids in a bird
    • thin skin and no SQ tissue
    • between knee and abdomen (away from abdomen).  
    • DON'T use ptagium of wing.  
    • can't tent skin, use bevel and aspirate, slow injection of WARMED fluids.  1/4 turn of syringe to seal skin over hole.  
    • 10-15 mL/kg/site
    • NEVER intra-coelomic, could drown
  24. intramuscular injections in birds
    • pectoralis.  
    • NEVER in leg except ratites
  25. IV injections/venipuncture in birds
    • very superficial BV, no SQ to support hemostasis so hematoma/hemorrhage common. Easy to drown them in blood or fracture.  
    • Right jug (bigger than left).  Featherless tract over jug.
    • also metatarsal vein (medial leg)
    • also wing vein = basilic/ulnar vein
    • NOT from over-clipping a nail.  Often fecal contamination. 
    • Intra-osseus if needed (distal ulna, tibia, NOT HUMERUS because communicates with air sac)
  26. Chlamydia psittaci
    • zoonotic  from birds
    • resp and GI of birds, + hepatitis.  
    • tx with doxy, azithro
  27. Vitamin A deficiency in birds
    • eyes and epithelium
    • oral plaques, secondary infections, predispose to gout
  28. Goiter in birds
    • iodine deficiency! Low intake or plants that interfere with uptake
    • most common avian thyroid disorder, usu budgies
    • thyroid dysplasia (enlarges) = clicking and regurg, resp distress, stops talking, gradual starvation.  Tx with iodine!
  29. gout in birds
    • elevated plasma uric acid levels precipitates into urine crystals on visceral surfaces.  Rapidly fatal.  
    • in joints causes arthritis, inflammation
    • in renal parenchyma = obstruction and inflammation
  30. aspergillosis
    • resp disease, hard to manage.  Abscesses/granuloma if chronic. 
    • Asper is deep, candida is superficial.
  31. avian gastric yeast
    • weight loss in budgies (regurg, seem polyphagic, huge stools with undigested seeds)
    • parrolet = sudden regurg, melena, death
  32. polyomavirus in birds
    • budgie fledgling disease- kills babies with abdominal distension, hemorrhage, feather abnormalities, ataxia/tremors. chronically don't grow feathers. 
    • In non-budgies causes either sudden death or asymptomatic via weakness, crop stasis, hemorrhage, regurg/diarrhea, polyuria, dyspnea. Chronic can be weight loss, renal failure, edema, ascites, pneumonia.
  33. psittacine beak and feather disease
    • circovirus, death in 6 months to 2 years
    • old world and occasionally new world parrots
  34. proventricular dilatation disease
    • lymphoplasmacystis neuritis - can be GI or neuro
    • delayed crop emptying with regurg and maldigestion, +/- neuro
    • bornavirus
  35. Pacheco's disease
    • viral hepatitis from herpes
    • acute death, yellow urates and scant feces, diarrhea, sinusitis, conjunctivitis
  36. choose the correct statement:

    C. most psittacines originate from tropical locations
  37. True or false: 
    the recommended diet for many species of psittacines is 30% pelleted food with 70-80% fresh fruits and vegetables
    FALSE, opposite (25% veg, 5% seeds)
  38. which is the correct statement: 

    C. restriction of the movement of a bird's keel during restraint may lead to impaired breathing and distress
  39. Which is the TRUE statement

    A. The color of the iris is a rough indicator of age in some species when birds are young
  40. Question: Which statement describes best the
    infraorbital sinus in birds?

    B. It has ramifications behind the eye and along the neck
  41. Choose the FALSE statement

    D. Birds lack inner ears
  42. Question: what is a blood feather?

    B. A growing feather
  43. Question: which statement is CORRECT?

    D. Prolapsed tissues at the vent and soiled feathers surrounding the vent are abnormal clinical findings
  44. What is the approximate total daily maintenance fluid
    recommendation for a 0.4 kg cockatoo?

    B. 30 ml
  45. Question: From which of the following vessels
    can a significant amount of blood be collected in a cockatiel?

    D. right jugular
  46. What is the most likely cause of iron
    storage disease in softbilled birds

    D. Lack of intestinal mucosal blockage of iron absorption in combination with high dietary iron levels
  47. Question: Which statement if CORRECT?

    D. Disease caused by Aspergillosus spp.is often associated with decreased immune function
  48. Question: which statement regarding Candida is

    A. Candida infection causes deep infections of the respiratory system
  49. Question: Select the FALSE statement.
    Polyomavirus causes:

    C. If feather lesion appear, normal feathers will return with the next molt if initial abnormalities were caused by polyomavirus only
  50. Question: Which statement is CORRECT regarding proventricular dilatation disease (PDD)?

    A. Two forms are described myenteric and neurologic
  51. Choose the CORRECT statement: Pacheco disease is:

    A. Caused by a herpesvirus and causes acute mortality from severe hepatitis
  52. Question: Which statement is CORRECT?

    C. Birds that recover from an infection with Chlamydophila are fully susceptible to re-infection
    Which ONE of the following symptoms is NOT usually seen
    in birds infected with Chlamydophila psittaci?

    A. Lameness
  54. true or false: ventral midline is the first choice for blood collection in snakes
  55. true or false: chameleons are great choices for novice lizard owners and require minimal/simple husbandry
  56. ID the species of lizard below: 
    Image Upload 1

    B. Leopard Gecko
  57. ID the species of lizard below: 
    Image Upload 2

    B. green iguana
  58. ID the species of lizard below: 
    Image Upload 3

    C. bearded dragon
  59. ID the species of lizard below: 
    Image Upload 4

    B. veiled chameleon
  60. What kind of turtle is this? 
    Image Upload 5
    A. Eastern painted turtle
    B. Eastern box turtle
    A. Eastern painted turtle
  61. What kind of turtle is this? 
    Image Upload 6
    A. Eastern painted turtle
    B. Eastern box turtle
    • B. Eastern Box turtle
    • males have red eyes and females have yellow
  62. Talk to me about this
    Image Upload 7
    How to sex a snake!  lubricate the probe and count # of scales.  Males have a bigger pouch because it's a hemi-penile sac
  63. Talk to me about this
    Image Upload 8
    • How to sex a lizard--males have pre-anal pores.  Females have them but hard to see
    • males also have hemi-penal bulges
  64. abdominal incisions in reptiles should be _______
    OFF midline, because of the huge ventral abdominal vein
  65. renal-portal system of reptiles
    venous blood goes from tail, hind limbs and pelvis to KIDNEY before rest of circulation, so injections to caudal body have higher excretion and higher toxicity
  66. ecdysis
    • skin-shedding of reptiles.  
    • intermediate cells make new epidermis, lymph floods in between (visible behind spectacle because translucent), enzymes, shed
    • lizards in pieces, snakes in one big piece usu
    • crocodiles and turtles continuously, squamates (snake, lizards) periodically
  67. spectacle
    fused eyelid of snakes, sheds with skin
  68. how to ventilate a turtle
    move its legs!!  No diaphragm, so ribs cause breathing.
  69. POTZ
    • preferred optimal temperature zone (different reptiles like different temps at different times of day
    • primary heat source set to low point POTZ, then add basking spot on one side (NOT HOT ROCKS)
  70. UV-B and reptiles
    they need it.  Sunlight is best, helps produce vitamin D.
  71. gut loading in insectivore reptiles
    insects are high in P, so dust with Ca or make them eat leafy greens to get enough Ca (also need UV-B)
  72. turtle skeleton
    • carapace
    • plastron
    • bridge
  73. turtle restraint
    • hold shell, prob near tail
    • yogurt cup = muzzle
    • can tape head and/or feet in shell, or prop on a roll of tape
    • DO NOT HOLD IN DORSAL - organs press on lungs and they suffocate
    • you could get your fingers trapped in the shell or lose a nail
  74. reptile mm color
    always pale, lower PCV with bigger RBC
  75. auscultation of reptiles
    difficult.  Use a doppler at base of neck
  76. palpation of reptiles
    • shell should be hard, round, smooth-ish (no pyramiding)
    • coelomic palpation through pre-femoral fossa
  77. safe blood volume to pull from healthy reptile (and tube for sample)
    • use GRAMS/mLs, can take 0.5-0.8% of body weight
    • so 1kg lizard = 1000g = 5-8mL of blood.  (blood is 5-8% of weight, can take 10%)
    • use HEPARIN for CBC/chem in chelonians, EDTA lyses cells
  78. venipuncture on turtles
    • right jugular: bigger than left, straight line between head and neck, can hold off and SEE (only one)
    • dorsal cervical/vertebral sinus: between neck and shell, where skin attaches to carapace.  Next to lymph sinus so may contaminate
    • brachial sinus: blind stick at elbow
    • dorsal (tail) vein: SMALL samples
  79. reptile fluid therapy
    • PO, SQ, IV, IO, intracoelomic, "cloacal" (= soaking), usu SQ (cranial thigh or skin folds around front legs) and ICe (needle cranial to thigh, aim down or could drown)
    • 15 mL/kg/day
    • REPTILE RINGERS: I part LRS, 2 parts 2.5 dex in half saline.
    • IM drugs in cranial half of body (renal-portal)
  80. gavage feeding reptiles
    • hepatic lipidosis common
    • 0.5-2% body weight in kg is the volume of the stomach
    • ball-tipped feeding tubes with luer lock in corner of mouth with a gag to protect tube/beak.  Hold up to prevent regurg
  81. common diseases of chelonians (8)
    • metabolic bone dz
    • URT diseases
    • pneumonia
    • vitamin A deficiency
    • aural abscesses
    • shell disease
    • cloacal/phallus prolapse
    • egg binding
  82. tail autonomy
    • iguanas, geckos
    • if caught by tail it will pop off and keep twitching while they run away.  Some grow back and some don't.  There are fracture lines.
    • to amputate, cut skin 2 vertebrae up from a fracture line, snap and leave open
  83. blindfolding a lizard
    gentle pressure on eyeballs = vagal, decreases heartrate and calms
  84. cloacal palpation on lizards
    kidneys around rectum, CKD can cause constipation!
  85. venipuncture on lizards (3)
    • tail vein (ventral or lateral approach, same vein)
    • ventral abdominal vein
    • jugular vein
  86. lizard fluids
    SQ, intracoelomic (lateral flank, craniodorsal), IV in tail or ventral midline vein or cephalic (cut down), IO in prox tibia or distal femur
  87. common diseases of lizards (7)
    • metabolic bone disease
    • renal disease (iguanas)
    • tail trama/autonomy
    • dysecdysis
    • trama/bite wounds
    • burns
    • egg binding
  88. snake mites
    in skin between mandibles (under chin)
  89. snake venipuncture
    • cardiocentesis: find with doppler, hold in front and behind (WILL MOVE!)
    • ventral tail vein: in large species
  90. Fluids in snakes
    SQ (dorsal), intraceolomic (cd coelom to avoid lungs/air sac), IV HARD
  91. dx of lung disease in a snake
    • tracheal or lung wash
    • infuse 025-1mL/kg sterile saline
    • can't cough, so move head back and forth aiming down to collect.  Parasites!  cytology, etc.
  92. common diseases of snakes (11)
    • dysecdysis
    • retained spectacles
    • stomatitis
    • pneumonia
    • trauma/bite wounds
    • burns
    • mites
    • inclusion body disease
    • cryptosporidium
    • egg binding
    • constipation
  93. Define wildlife medicine
    • A subset of zoo medicine specialty that sees non-domestic animals.  
    • Free-ranging (population Med) and captive (individual)
  94. describe what we have at Cornell for wildlife medicine
    • Individual researchers
    • structured programs (raptor, NYS DEC, Wildlife health center)
  95. Highlight some of the challenges(6) and most common conditions (6) in wildlife medicine
    • Orphans
    • HBC
    • Cat attacks
    • gunshot
    • toxicities: lead, rodenticide
    • infectious diseases: Mycoplasma gallisepticum, avipoxviruses, west Nile, rabies
    • Challenges: wide variety of species, little published info, no owners, no/minimal history, emergencies, advanced stages of disease or severe injury
  96. Give examples of how you can participate in wildlife medicine
    wildlife vet: clinic,   education, government, conservation organizations, research.  Private practice?
  97. Lead toxicity in wildlife: comes from, effects, dx, tx
    • From people - aquatic from fishing gear or lead shot landing in water.  On land, from eating prey with lead shot inside
    • effects: neuro, hematologic, GI
    • dx: blood lead level
    • tx: chelation   (CaEDTA, DMSA)
  98. rodenticide in wildlife
    • Usu relay toxicity, from eating prey that ate poison.
    • usu anticoag (VitK)
    • bleed - anemic.  Hard to test for.  
  99. Mycoplasma conjunctivitisin wildlife
    • Mycoplasma gallisepticum
    • resp pathogen of domestic poultry
    • lymphoplasmacytic conjunctivitis, sinusitis, rhinitis
    • infectious, passerines
    • tx with macrolides, tetracyclines
  100. Avipoxviruses in wildlife
    • Worldwide, transmission via direct contact, insects, aerosol, fomite...
    • dry (on skin) or wet (resp and GI)
  101. West Nile Virus in wildlife
    • Flavivirus, vector-borne
    • bird-mosquito-bird, but also reported in some mammals
    • raptors, corvids, waterfowl (ecephalitis, choroiditis, myocarditis, nephritis)
    • July through September
    • Zoonotic
  102. Rabies in wildlife
    • Acute progressive fatal polioencephalomyelitis
    • transmission through saliva
    • zoonotic
    • dx via fluorescent ab on brain tissue
    • wildlife are >90% of US rabies
    • reservoir: raccoon, skunk, bat, fox
  103. Ferrets should be considered
    skinny cats that get canine distemper
  104. names for male, female, baby ferrets
    how to sex
    • Males - hobs
    • females - Jills 
    • Young - kits
    • anogenital distance longer in males
  105. ferret sx
    spay (to prevent hyperestrogenemia) and neuter and descent at 3-6wks, must be by 6 months
  106. ferret nutrition
    • Strict carnivores eat total prey
    • need 30% protein at least, 15-20% fat.  High quality cat or ferret food, small amounts frequently
  107. ferret restraint
    • easygoing, distract front with nutrical and can do anything to back
    • scruff (will yawn), stretch with scruff and in front of pelvis
    • bite rules same as cat/dog (rabies)
  108. Ferret eyes, ears, nose throat exam
    • Menace unreliable,retinahard to visualize, no tapetum, sometimes cataracts, brown ear wax with normal ear mites, don't seem to bother them. 
    • Mm and CRT on gums, canines often broken or discolored, gingivitis and tarter
  109. lymph nodes in ferrets
    usu covered in fat
  110. cardio in ferrets
    pronounced sinus arrhythmia and dropped beats normal.
  111. Splenomegaly in ferrets due to
    extramedullary hematopoiesis
  112. green diarrhea in a ferret
    bird seed feces in ferret, melena
    • green = bile staining, not eating enough
    • bird seed = fat globules from diseases.
  113. Ferret vax
    • use Purevax by Merial or Nobivac puppy DPv NOT NORMAL DOG DA2PP (live!)
    • rabies: purvax (not approved) or Imrab
    • usu only give 1 vax at a time
  114. dz of ferrets
    • coccidia, giardia, crypto
    • HW
    • fleas
    • rarely ticks, no lyme
    • ear mites
  115. ferret venipuncture
    • jug (may be blind) or anterior VC ** (insert above 1st rib at 45 degrees toward opposite pelvic limb)
    • small samples: lat saph, cephalon, tail artery
    • large beautiful bruises.  May need to do a cut-down and pre-flush catheter
  116. ferret injections
    • SQ between shoulders for vax and SMALL fluids, 50mL/kg/day will need to be in several spaces.
    • IM semitens, semimems, lumbar
    • IO prox femur, tibia
    • IV in cephalic, lat saph
  117. How is a ferret diet like a cat?
  118. Is the ferret exam similar or different from a dog or cat?  How so?
    PE types
  119. how is ferret preventativemedlike a dog?
    Same vax
  120. what PE parameters are similar to d/c
    Temp is same as d/c
  121. Ferrets and helicobacter mustelae
    Commensalism in stomach, duodenum.  Opportunistic
  122. Gastritis in ferrets
    • caused by inflammatory, stress, helicobacter... 
    • tx as in dog/cat.  Vomiting common.
  123. Foreign body in ferrets
    • Toys, hairballs, erasers, ear plugs 
    • signs and tx similar to dog/cat
    • anorexia most common, sometimes vomiting (rare).
    • dilated stomach or gas in stomach.  They love to eat small soft things
  124. canine distemper in ferrets
    • 100% fatal. Very susceptible.  12-14d survival time.  
    • Aerosol or direct contact with ANYTHING
    • Signs: fever, dermatitis, erythema of mm, d/c, crusts, hyperkarytosis of foot pads, resp, CNS
  125. Influenza in ferrets
    • HUMAN influenza
    • fever, lethargy, anorexia, nasal d/c, sneezing, depression
    • hard to diagnose
    • supportive tx 
    • recover 7-14d
  126. Coronavirus type 1 in ferrets
    Like dogs. new ferret brings it in, 10-14d.  Worse in older (diarrhea, anorexia, weight loss.  Bird seed droppings).  Supportive care, quarantine new ferrets
  127. Coronavirus type 2 in ferrets
    • like dry FIP.  Affects young.  
    • fever, lymphadenopathy (often ONE node), peritonitis, anorexia, lethargy
    • Tx is supportive + steroids/immunomodulants.  Pretty much fatal.
  128. Adrenal disease in ferrets
    • Zona reticularis = overproduction of sex hormones (dogs are glomerulosa, cortisol).  
    • 3-4y old average
    • signs: hair loss, enlarged vulva, pruritus, aggression, dysuria in males from prostatic enlargement.
    • can PALPATE adrenals normally, so can feel it, or ultrasound.
    • sx best (remove the big one and half the other if bilateral, unilateral, 40% chance 2nd one will go in 3y), but medical possible (GnRH agonists, Lipton or deslorelin)
  129. insulinoma in ferrets
    • functional beta cell tumors
    • older animals, insidious onset
    • signs: lethargy, exercise intolerance, weaknesss (hind limbs), ataxia, salivation, bruxism, staring into distance
    • All ferrets should get a BG every 6 months
    • Could remove large mass or part of pancreas (best chance for normal), but WHOLE pancreas affected so not curative
    • Prednisone to include glc or diazoxide to bind insulin receptors.
  130. heart disease in ferrets
    • DCM most often
    • coughing, lethargy, dyspnea, ascites
    • rads and ECG
    • benazapril,pimobendan, digoxin, lasix
  131. coronaviurs in ferrets like dogs, cats
    • type 1 like dog, enteric
    • type 2 like dry FIP
  132. How is ferret dz different than dog?
    Zona reticularis rather than glomerulosa
  133. What is role of Helicobacterin ferret GI?
    • Commensal/opportunistic
    • metro will kill it and pepto stops them from latching on to ulcer
  134. Rabbit basic info, food and feces
    • Little horses that hop.
    • Lagomorphs because of peg teeth
    • hind-gut fermenters,not enough intestine so re-eat night feces.  Day feces has lots of fiber to keep GI tract moving. Also need roughage for dental wear, teeth never stop growing.  NOT DIARRHEA, just night feces.
    • STRESS so keep familiar smells, quiet esp after anesthesia.  Analgesia.
  135. Rabbit repro
    • males - bucks, females -does, young - kits.
    • copulation30-40s, 30d gestation. Anogenital distance same, slit-like vs round opening.  Testicles descend at 3 months.
    • altricial young, nurse only BID, wean 4-5wks
  136. Housing for rabbits
    • No foot pads so wire bottom = pododermatitis
    • social, need 2 (females territorial, m/f pair best)
    • need exercise min 4h
  137. rabbit diet
    • Pellets 20% or less (Timothy based for adult)
    • grazing 50% of diet (hay, little/no alfalfa, fresh untreated grass
    • 30% veggies
  138. Rabbit restraint
    • Spinal injury from kicking--just set them down if kicking, keep non-slip surfaces.  Cover eyes if stressed (hold like a football with full-body scruff.
    • Don't "hypnotize" on back by rubbing belly, cortisol spikes and they panic.
  139. Rabbit PE
    • No menace, no tapetum. Tympanum easily ruptured and straight canal, flush GENTLY.
    • Dewlap in females to pluck hair and line nest.
    • Oral - DENTAL ISSUES.  Peg teeth behind, 2 upper and 1 lower incisor. Oral speculum or otoscope cone for cheek teeth. Palpate for elongated roots in cheek teeth.
    • Loud lung sounds, can listen to heart on sternum. Huge heart, murmurs heard everywhere
    • stomach should always be full
    • black waxy material in inguinal scent glands.
    • Temp should be >100, below is shock!  Therm DORSAL
  140. Bunny venipuncture
    • Small samples: marginal ear vein (poke and let drip, catheter), cephalic vein (good for cath, only straight one in body)
    • lg samples: lateral saph (cath), jug vein (don't lift head too high)
  141. bunny fluids
    SQ warmed isotonic along shoulders/back/laterally
  142. bunny urine
    • Lots of mucus, Calcium like a bunny.  Also porphyrins-orange-pink color (normal from chlorophyll).  Stress? Not sure why it happens. Alkaline urine. 
    • Daily exercise necessary because LOTS of sediment, needs to move to come out.
  143. How is rabbit GI like a horse, and how not?
    Hind-gut fermenters (except make night feces)
  144. rabbit dentition
    • Not enough fiber = small cheek teeth chewing, need more to avoid points
    • can't prehend/drop food
    • ulcers as the teeth grow into other tissues.  Can trim teeth - low speed to avoid HEATING teeth up. 
    • As teeth grow up, too much pressure will make them grow DOWN = abscesses (anaerobic). Debride and pack, open and marsupialize, etc.
  145. Gastric stasis in rabbit, guinea pig, chinchilla
    • indicates DRIED OUT material in stomach--decreased consumption, low fiber, high carbs (hair is normal, but hairballs)
    • USU BAR but hx of anorexia, small hard feces or no feces, doughy mass in cranial abdomen (halo in rads pathognomonic)
    • tx: rehydration of P, rehydration of stomach contents, increase motility.  Fluids, force-feed high fiber or critical care or pumpkin, metoclopramide or cisapride, fresh veggies and hay, respond in 2-4d
  146. Goals in GI stasis of rabbits
    • rehydrate P
    • rehydrate stomach contents
    • increase gastric motility
  147. gastric obstruction in rabbits
    • Hairball, FB, pyloric disease, rabbit seems SICK, often hypothermic.  Stomach taut, full, fluid or gas. No halo on rads.  Emergency!
    • tx metabolic (acid/base)  and stomach distension (pushing on diaphragm, can't breathe!). = fluids, heat, gastric lavage, sx with FB.  
    • Metaclopramide and small food q2h
    • guarded prognosis
  148. Dysbiosis in rabbits
    Unbalanced flora.  Caused by some abx -  penicillins, macrolides and cephalosporins PO
  149. diarrhea in rabbits
    • Older: Often just uneaten cecotropes
    • low fiber, high carbs, stress, oral abx and bacterial enteritis (clostridium, usually secondary).
    • Young: unestablished GI flora.  Coccidia, corona or rotavirus, bacterial (clostridium, salmonella, pseudomonas, campylobacter, E. coli, C. Piliforme
  150. rabbit URI
    • "snuffles"
    • check uppper legs--grooming. Nasal culture helpful.  
    • Systemic and topical abx.  
    • Can also have allergies.
  151. Uterine neoplasia in rabbits
    • 80% unspayed females by age 4
    • adenoma, adenocarcinoma, endometriosis, hyperplasia, uterine aneurysms, pyometra. Thx with OHE.  Lung mets common.
  152. Rabbit neoplasia
    • Thymomas: exophthalmus, exercise intolerance, lethargy, dyspnea, hiccups.  
    • Sx or radiation
  153. rabbit, guinea pig, chinchilla urinary tract disease
    • Ca sludge in bladder, stones common (bladder, ureter, kidney).  Bladder feels like hacky-sack, urinate sludge.  Rads.  
    • Remove when possible, or potassium/sodium citrate to reduce size and preventative.
  154. torticollis/wry neck in rabbits
    • peripheral vestibular disease: bacterial infection of bulla through eustacian tube, bulla osteotomuy(+/-TECA), long-term abs
    • Central vestibular disease: encephalitizoan cuniculi, or other CNS stuff.  Tx with meloxicam and albendazole/fenbendazole. Headtilt may never go away, roll
  155. Guinea pig life span
  156. How to tell a guinea pig is dehydrated
    Sunken eyes
  157. guinea pig head butt response
    touch forehead and they push off--otherwise depressed
  158. guinea pig auscultation
    Heart cranial, over sternum, LOUD lung sounds like rabbit
  159. abdominal palpation in guinea pig
    stomach often empty (2h), can palpate kidneys, third kidney is likely an enlarged ovary (>3y very common)
  160. chinchilla restraint
    • support body
    • hold base of tail - jumpers!  
    • Don't grab fur--fur slip!
  161. Chinchilla PE
    • Palpate jaw line for root elongation
    • familiar heart murmurs normal, loud lung sounds.  
    • Sex via anogenital distance.
  162. Guinea pig  diet
    • need vitamin C so FRESH pellets
    • high fiber diets
    • Timothy or grass hay 50% diet. Fresh veggies up to 30%.  Won't try new foods when older
    • dirty, need sipper bottle
  163. chinchilla diet
    Commercial pellets <40% of diet with free choice Timothy or grass hay, 10-25% veggies, sugars and treats <5% of diet
  164. Chinchilla/guinea pig venipuncture, fluids
    • cranial vena cava
    • jug (more lateral than expected), don't tilt head too far (asphyxiate)
    • catheter in cephalic or lat saph
    • 60-100ml/kg/day
    • dorsal to scapula, not much space so many pockets or frequent
    • IM in small volumes in caudal thigh, no epaxials in chinchilla
  165. Guinea pig, chinchilla dental disease
    • Lingual entrapment: teeth grow over tongue, can't swallow
    • abscesses less common than rabbits
  166. dystocia in guinea pigs
    • moms >7mo old.  OK to breed first time before 6mo (pelvic symphysis closes).
    • tx with oxytocin if going to fit, C-section if not (not a good prognosis)
  167. guinea pig pregnancy toxemia
    • Older, obese sows before or after parturition
    • ketosis, depression, weakness, dyspnea.  Hypoglycemia, ketonemia/uria. 
    • PREVENT, tx doesn't always help
  168. cystic ovaries in guinea pigs
    Sows 2-5y, alopecia, pruritus, abdominal masses. Only 1 type of cyst is hormonally active, too much hormone = uterine disease.
  169. guinea pig BCS
    Fat around armpits or chin = obese
  170. Rodent restraint
    hold by BASE Of tail, can full-body scruff (make the hamster smile), often better walking around
  171. tumors in rats and mice
    Mammary tumors!!!  If it's not on the head in a rat, it's a mammary tumor.  Usu benign in rats (fibroadenomas), malignant in mice.
  172. Resp in rodents
    mycoplasma pulmonis - CHRONIC, persists for life.  Enroflox and doxy, maybe azithro.  Thx for 2 weeks, lone for 5 months, recurs.
  173. Proliferative ileitis in hamsters
    Lawsonia intracellularis = "wet tail" in hamsters, can cause intestinal prolapse.
  174. common conditions in gerbils
    • Epileptiform seizures (genetic)
    • nasal dermatitis: porphyrin, self-trauma
    • cutaneous neoplasms: ventral scent gland adenoma, sx removal easy but will come back
    • M&M - mice and malignancy
  175. barbering
    dominant animal cuts fur of others--distract!  Don't overstock
  176. what do you have to be careful of when handling chinchillas?
    fur slip
  177. why is it important to make hamsters smile
  178. mammary tumors in mice are
    bad!!  Malignant
  179. What rodent most likely to get heat stroke?
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