ch 3.txt

  1. osmosis
    • flow of water through membranes
    • always a passive process
    • can diffuse through plasma membrane or through aquaporins, a membrane protein
  2. active transport
    goes against concentration gradient - uses ATP, which leaves a phosphate group and becomes ADP, provides the energy for the process to occur
  3. endocytosis
    • entry of materials INTO a cell
    • types: receptor mediated endocytosis, phagocytosis (large items, forms a u shape upward and englufs material) and pinocytosis (liquid into cell, cell forms a crevase and liquid materials enter, then cell closes it in)
  4. exocytosis
    exit of materials from cell into surrounding extracellular fluid
  5. cytoskeleton
    network of protein filaments throughout the cytosol
  6. golgi
    packaging of proteins and vesicles carry proteins onwards
  7. types of vesicles
    • secretory vesicles: remove proteins from the cell and secrete them to somewhere else
    • membrane vesicles: send proteins to membrane to be attached (ie: glycoproteins)
    • transport vesicles: proteins sent to other parts of cell,(ie: lysosome to act in aiding digestion)
  8. PMAT
    • early prophase - chromatin is still forming chromosomes
    • late prophase - chromosomes are formed, microtubules begin to attach to chromosomes and nuclear envelope begins to break apart
    • metaphase - chromosomes line up at center
    • early anaphase - chromosomes begin to separate and move to separate poles, cell starts to reshape in order to start division
    • late anaphase - cleavage furrow forms, almost two separate cells
    • telophase - cell splits into two separate cells
Card Set
ch 3.txt
ch 3