DH theory

  1. Name the 3 recommended types of chemical disinfectants
    • Glutaraldehydes
    • Chlorine compounds
    • Iodophors
  2. What must the label state on a chemical disinfection solution container in order for us to use it?
    • shelf life
    • use life
    • reuse life
    • directions for activation
    • type of container for storage
    • toxic effects
  3. What chemicals must be included in a chemical disinfection solution for us to use it?
    • tuberculocidal
    • bacteriocidal
    • virucidal
    • fungicidal
  4. What is the criteria for selecting a chemical disinfectant agent?
    • EPA approved
    • Chemicals included
    • Labels
  5. Can chemical disinfectant solutions be altered by foreign materials?
  6. How is disinfection achieved by use of chemical disinfectants?
    by coagulation, precipitation, or oxidation of protein, or denaturation of enzymes of cells
  7. What are chemical disinfectants used for?
    • treatment area after appointment
    • impressions
    • dentures/partials
  8. Low level disinfectant
    incactivates vegetative bacteria and certain lipid-type viruses, but does not destroy spores, tubercle bacilli, or non-lipid viruses
  9. Intermediate level disinfectant
    inactivates all forms of microorganisms, but does not destroy spores
  10. High level disinfectant
    inactivates spores, fungi, bacteria, and viruses, is a disinfectant, or a sterilizer
  11. What are chemical disinfectants used for?
    • surface disinfectants
    • immersion disinfectants
    • immersion sterilants
    • hand antimicrobials
  12. Why isn't chemical sterilization effective?
    • Can't verify effectiveness with spore testing
    • can't package instruments
    • must rinse with sterile water
    • must be completely immersed in solution (immersion)
  13. How long does chemical sterilization take?
    10-12 hours
  14. What are chemical sterilants used for?
    items that can't be sterilized with heat
  15. environmental
    • no contact with pt. surfaces
    • -low level disinfection
  16. non-critical
    • doesn't touch mucous membrane (light, some x-ray materials)
    • -low level disinfection
  17. semicritical
    • touch intact mucous membrane (mirror)
    • -sterilize or high level disinfection
  18. Critical
    Penetrates soft tissue or bone (needle, explorer, etc)
  19. Critical
    • penetrates soft tissue or bone. (needle, explorer, etc)
    • -sterilize or dispose
  20. What are the limitations of using gluteraldehydes?
    • irritates skin and eyes
    • corrosive to some instruments
    • bad to inhale
  21. How do you prepare Gluteraldehyde solutions?
    mix 2 components to activate
  22. How do gluteraldehydes disinfect?
    • high level disinfectants (used in immersion disinfection)
    • damage proteins and nucleic acids
  23. What are the types of gluteraldehydes used?
    • 2% nuetral
    • 2% alkaline
    • 2% acidic
  24. How do chlorine compounds disinfect?
    oxidation of enzymes, and cell wall components
  25. What are chlorine compounds used for?
    • water purification
    • denture cleaning
  26. what are chlorine compounds made up of?
    sodium hypochloride 5.25% (household bleach)
  27. What are the limitations of chloride compounds? And why are they so widely used?
    • a. you must change it every day
    • harmful and corrosive
    • bad smell
    • b. It's cheap and breaks things down easily
  28. How do idophors disinfect?
    Iodine is released slowly
  29. What are idophors used for?
    • surgical antisepsis
    • liquid soaps
    • mouth rinses
    • surface antiseptics
  30. what are idophors made up of?
    • 1% 0-benzyl-pehlorophenol
    • 9% 0-phenylphenyl
    • diluted with distilled water
  31. High concentration idophor
    protoplasmic poison- destroys cell wall and precipitates protein
  32. Low concentration idophor
    • surface disinfectant- inactivates enzymes
    • dilluted with distilled water
  33. Describe typical care of sterile instruments
    • store in package/wrapper
    • put package in clean cabinet or drawer and make sure it's dated
    • resterilize instruments after 3 months
  34. How do chemical vapor sterilizers sterilize?
    combination of alcolhols, formaldehydes, keytone water, and acetone heated under pressure produce gases that sterilize
  35. what are chemical vapor sterilizers used for?
    • low melting plastics
    • liquids
    • heat sensitive hand pieces
  36. What temperature is used for chemical vapor sterilization?
    127-132 C (260-270 F)
  37. What pressure is used for Chemical vapor sterilization?
    20-40 lbs
  38. Do instruments need to dry and cool after use of chemical vapor sterilizer?
    Need to cool, but not dry
  39. How often must you clean/ refill chemical vapor sterilizer?
    once a week
  40. What are the advantages of using a chemical vapor sterilizer?
    • easy to use
    • short amount of time
    • corrosion and rust free
  41. What are the disadvantages of using the chemical vapor sterilizer?
    you need a lot of ventilation, the fumes are very dangerous
  42. How does Dry Heat sterilizer sterilize?
    Oxidation-from heat conducted from the outside to inside
  43. What is the dry heat sterilizer used for?
    • materials that can't be steam autoclaved
    • oils
    • powders
    • small instruments that might be corroded or rusted
  44. Does oil, debris, or grease protect microorganisms from sterilization in using Dry Heat sterilizer?
  45. What temperature is used for Dry Heat sterilizer?
    • 160 C (320 F) for 2 hrs
    • 170 C (340 F) for 1 hr
    • -sterilization/timing doesn't start til after machine preheated
  46. What happens if the tempurater exceeds 160 C using Dry heat sterilizer?
    it can ruin/destroy sharp edges
  47. What are the advantages of using Dry Heat sterilization?
    • useful for materials that can't be autoclaved
    • if at right tempurature, good for sharp instruments
    • no rust or corrosion
  48. What are the disadvantages of using Dry heat sterilization?
    • it takes a LONG time
    • must maintain very high tempuratures
  49. How does Moist Heat Steam under pressure (steam autoclave) sterilize?
    • Heat destroys by inactivating cell proteins or enzymes
    • moist heat coagulates proteins
  50. What are steam autoclaves used for?
    • materials except:
    • oils
    • powders
    • waxes
    • or items that can't get too hot
  51. What purpose does pressure serve in steam autoclave?
    to increase temperature
  52. Steriliztion in steam autoclave depends on what?
    penetrating ability of steam
  53. What are the conditions for packing and preparing instruments and steam autoclave?
    • no air
    • leave space between objects
    • instruments are cleaned and air dried
  54. What is the tempurature used for steam autoclave?
    121 C (250 F)
  55. What amount of pressure is used for steam autoclave?
    15 lbs pressure
  56. How long do you run steam autoclave?
    • 15 min
    • 30 min if load is heavy
  57. What are the advantages of the steam autoclave?
    • quick and efficient
    • most economic method
  58. What are disadvantages of using steam autoclave?
    • corrosion
    • no oils, liquids, powders, waxes, or materials that can't handle heat
  59. what are the three tests for adequate sterilization?
    • external chemical indicater
    • internal chemical indicator
    • biologic monitor
  60. external chemical indicator
    seals package and changes color if correct temperature of autoclave was reached (external on package)
  61. internal chemical indicator
    color change shows instruments exosed to heat and steam for the right time
  62. Biologic monitor
    tests that autoclave functions right-run organisms through machine then culture them
  63. What microorganism is used for the biologic monitor test in the steam autoclave?
    geobacillus stearothermophilus strips
  64. How often must you perform the biologic monitor test?
    once a week
  65. sterilization
    all forms of life are destroyed
  66. 3 methods for sterilization
    • dry heat
    • chemical vapor
    • steam autoclave
  67. What are the causes for incomplete sterilization?
    • inadequate preperation
    • misuse of equipment
    • inadequate maintenance
  68. Describe the seal on the package for instruments
    • indicator tape
    • indicator strip changes color during sterilization indicating that auclave reached right tempurature for penetration, but it does not indicate in sterilized
    • black strip should appear when done
  69. When do you unwrap your instruments
    Not until you are infront of your patient
  70. What materials do you need to prepare for instrument packaging?
    • sturdy wrapping to preven tears
    • wrapping that permits steam or chemical vapor to pass through contents
  71. what are the indications for thourgough drying?
    • when sterilizing by dry heat, chemical heat, chemical vapor, or ethylene oxide
    • nonstainless steal must predip in rust inhibitor before steam autoclaving
    • packaging in paper wrap
  72. How do you arrange you instruments when packaging?
    • preplan and preload cassette for specific appointment
    • date and mark tray or package
    • use clear see through package
  73. How long do you run the ultrasonic?
    15 minutes
  74. is the ultrasonic a substitute for sterilization?
  75. How do instrument wahsers disinfect
    high velocity, and hot water
  76. How do instrument washers/thermal disinfectants and ultrasonics disinfect?
    higher degree of temp and high velocity
Card Set
DH theory
Chemical sterilants