- Two or more people who interact and are interdependent in the sense that their needs and goals cause them to influence each other.
- People who have assembled for a common purpose.
Why do people join groups?
- Need to belong to groups may be innate. Groups allow us to accomplish difficult objectives.
- Fills basic need to belong.
- Mke people feel distinctive from members of other groups.
Composition and functions of groups
- Tend to consist of homogenous members
- Have well defined social roles, shared expectations about how people are supposed to behave.
In what ways do individuals perform differently when others are around?
- Social facilitation: when the presence of others and the individual can be evaluated, performance is enhanced on simple tasks but impaird on complex tasks.
- Social loafing: when people are in the presence of othres and individual performance cannot be evaluated, the tendency to perform worse on simple or unimportant tasks but better on complex or important tasks.
- Deindividuation: The loosening of normal constraints on behaviour when people can't be identified (such as when in a crowd).
- Makes people less acountable.
- Deindividuation increases obedience to group norms.
- Deindividuation online
Are two (or more) heads better than one in decision making, and how do leaders shape group outcomes?
- Yes in general if:1)Group members freely contribute independent opinions from a variety of viewpoints.
- 2)People are motivated to search for the answer that is best for the entire group and not just for themselves.
- 3)They rely on the individual with the most expertise.
Group decisions: process loss, transactive memory
- Process loss: Any aspect of group interaction that inhibits good problem solving. eg when a group only discuss the things they have in common.
- Transactive memory: the combined memory of a group that is more efficient than the memory of individual members.
- Groupthink: a kind of decision process in which maintaining group cohesiveness is more important than considering the facts in a realisticmanner.
- Make groupthink less likely:
- Remain impartial
- Seek outside opinions
- Create subgroups.
- Seek anonymous opinions
- The tendency for groups to make decisions that are more extreme than the initial inclinations of their members.
- As a result of persuasive arguments and social comparison interpretation. (first check how everyone feels)
Great person theory
- Great person theory: the idea that certain key personality traits make a person a good leader, regardless of the situation.
- Transactional leaders: Leaders who set clear, short term goals and reward people who meet them.
- Transformational leaders: Leaders who inspire followers to focus on common, long term goals.
Contingency theory of leadership
Task oriented leaders
Relationship oriented leaders
- Contingency theory of leadership: The idea that the effectiveness of a leader depends both on how task oriented or relationship oriented the leader is and on the amount of control the leader has over the group.
- Task oriented leaders: concerned more with getting the job done than workers' feelings and relationships. Do well in low/high control work.
- Relationship oriented leaders: concerned more with workers' feelings and relationships. Do well in moderate control.
- A conflict in which the most beneficial action for an individual will, if chosen by most people, have harmful effects on everyone.
- Eg. downloading a book rather than buying.
A means of encouraging cooperation by at first acting cooperatively but then always responding the way your opponent did (cooperatively or competitively) on the previous trial).
A form of communication between opposing sides in a conflict in which offers and counteroffers are made and a solution occurs only when both parties agree.
A solution to a conflict whereby parties make trade-offs on issues, with each side conceding the most on issues that are unimportant to it but important to the other sides.