Properties of an Ideal Irrigant for Root Canal Treatment:
1. Be an effective germicide and fungicide.
2. Be non-irritating to the periapical tissues.
3. Remain stable in solution.
4. Have a prolonged anti-microbial effect.
5. Be active in the presence of blood, serum, and protein derivatives of tissue.
6. Have low surface tension.
7. Not interfere with repair of periapical tissues.
8. Not stain tooth structure.
9. Be capable of inactivation in a culture medium.
10. Not induce a cell-mediated immune response.
11. Be able to completely remove the smear layer and be able to disinfect the underlying dentin and its tubules.
12. Be non-antigenic, non-toxic, and non-carcinogenic to tissue cells surrounding the tooth.
13. Have no adverse effects on the physical properties of exposed dentin.
14. Have no adverse effects on the sealing ability of filling materials.
15. Have a convenient application.
16. Be relatively inexpensive.