RAD 111

  1. thyroid cartilage can be used to locate which vertebra
  2. what vertebral level does the trachea begin
  3. manubrial or suprasternal notch is at the level of what vertebra
    T2-T3 vertebral interspace
  4. xiphoid process corresponds to what vertebral interspace
  5. foreign bodies are more likely to enter ________bronchus because of its more vertical position
    right bronchus
  6. 4 organs located in mediastinum
    heart/great vessel, trachea, esophagus, thymus gland
  7. which lung is shorter/which hemidiaphragm is normally positioned higher & why
    • right lung is shorter
    • right hemidiaphragm is higher because of the liver
  8. trachea is located ______ to the esophagus
  9. adam's apple
    thyroid cartilage
  10. voice box
  11. larynx is __________to the pharynx
  12. cagelike structure suspended in hyoid bone
  13. parts of larynx
    epiglottis, thyroid cartilage, vocal fold, cricoid cartilage
  14. breastbone
  15. shoulder blade
  16. collar bone
  17. structure located proximal to the larynx which serves as a common passageway for both food & air
  18. structure which acts as a lid to the larynx to prevent food from entering the respiratory system
  19. double walled sac/lining that enclosed the each lungs
  20. small air sacs located at the distal ends of the bronchi where O2 & CO2 are exchanged with the blood
  21. how many ribs should be showing above the diaphragm on a good PA chest radiograph
    10 ribs
  22. 3 reasons why chest radiographs should be taken in the erect position
    lower diaphragm & organ to the lowest level, to see air fluid level, to prevent distortion & enlargement of organ
  23. why should chest radiograph be taken at 72" SID
    to decrease magnification & distortion
  24. how can rotation be determined on a lateral chest radiograph
    does not show a superimposed posterior ribs
  25. how can rotation be determined on a PA chest radiograph
    SC notch are asymmetrical to each other
  26. inhalation of foreign objects into the trachea
    aspiration/foreign body
  27. projection/position that show a small amount of fluid in the pleural cavity
    lateral decubitus with patient lying on the affected side, AP/PA projection
  28. phase of respiration when exposures for the lungs made to demonstrate largest area of lung structure
    after the 2nd full inspiration phase of respiration
  29. absence of spontaneous respiration
  30. widespread narrowing of the airways develops because of an increased responsiveness of the tracheobronchial tree to various stimuli/allergens
  31. collarse of all or part of the lungs
  32. splitting into 2 branches such as the trachea that branches into 2 bronchi
  33. inflammation of the bronchi
  34. radiogram obtained from bronchography
  35. x-ray examination of the bronchi after they have been coated with a radiopaque substance
  36. chronic condition of persistent obstruction of bronchial airflow
    COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  37. pattern of the body's response to some form of injury that cause deviation from or variation of normal condition. It may be hereditary or may result from a broad spectrum of traumatic, infectious, vascular, or metabolic processes presenting by a set of characteristics known as sign & symptoms
  38. any foreign matter, such as blood clot or air bubble carried in the bloodstream
  39. destructive & obstructive airway changes leading to an increase volume of air in the lungs
  40. accumulation of blood & fluid in the pleural cavity between the parietal & visceral pleura usually the result of the trauma
  41. breathing in of O2 into the lungs
  42. breathing out of CO2 off the lungs
  43. pertains to pathogenic or rapidly progressive condition; tending to become worse & to cause death
  44. light, spongy, highly elastic substance that composed the lungs & are covered by a layer of serous membrane
  45. study of diseases that can cause abnormalities in the structure or function of various organ systems
  46. part of the thoracic cavity; a double-walled (fibroserous) sac that enclosed the heart & the roots of the great vessels
  47. a serous membrane that lines the entire abdominal wall of the body & is reflected over the contained viscera
  48. a delicate serous membrane enclosing the lung
  49. covers the lungs, dipping into the fissures between the lobes
    visceral pleura
  50. lines the chest wall, covers the diaphragm & reflects over the structures in the mediastinum
    parietal pleura
  51. collection of fluid in the pleural cavity
    pleural effusion
  52. inflammation of the pleura
  53. acute infection in the lung parenchyma; caused by a variety of organisms, most commonly bacteria & viruses
  54. presence of air in the intrapleural space, which disrupts the fluid bond between the pleurae
  55. process of moving air into & out of the lungs; molecular exchange of oxygen & carbon dioxide within the body’s tissues
    respiration/breathing/pulmonary ventilation
  56. chronic infection of the lung due to the tubercle bacillus; caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis, a rod shaped bacterium with a protective waxy coat that permits it to live outside the body for a long time
  57. Division of respiratory system
    pharynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs
  58. fibrous, muscular tube with 16-20 C-shaped cartilaginous rings; C6-T4,T5
  59. T5; last tracheal cartilage & has a hooklike process which extends post. on its inferior surface
  60. 3 lobes, 2 deep fissures
    right lung
  61. 2 lobes, single fissure
    left lung
  62. a depression that accommodates the bronchi, pulmonary blood vessels, lymph vessels, & nerves
    hila (hilum)
  63. a deep recesses of parietal pleura
    costophrenic angle
  64. topographic landmarks in respiratory system
    thyroid cartilage (C5), suprasternal notch (T2), manubrial notch (T2-T3), sternal angle (T4-T5), xiphoid process (T10), vertebral prominence (C7)
  65. area of the thorax bounded by the sternum anteriorly, the spine posteriorly, & the lungs laterally
    mediastinum location
  66. primary control organ of the lymphatic system; responsible for producing the hormone thymosin (for the development & maturation of immune system)
    thymus gland
  67. part of the digestive canal that connects the pharynx with the stomach
  68. extending from the pharynx to the stomach; lies just in front of the vertebral column, with its anterior surface in close relation to the trachea, aortic arch & heart
    esophagus location
  69. begin in C6-T4/T5; lies in the midline of the body anterior to the esophagus in the neck
    trachea location
  70. parts of the bony thorax
    sternum, clavicles, ribs, scapula, thoracic vertebrae
  71. placement of side markers for chest radiographs (lateral projection)
    always mark the side closest to IR
  72. placement of side markers for chest radiographs (oblique projections)
    mark side down or nearest the IR
  73. correct breathing instructions for radiography of the chest
    2 full inspiration, exposure upon 2nd full breath while holding it in
  74. conditions for which inhalation & exhalation studies of the chest may be done
    pneumothorax, atelectasis, aspiration
  75. standard method of evaluating chest radiographs
    proper A &P, proper D & C, motion, MAG, ID, protection
  76. importance of conforming to departmental routine for technique selection for chest radiographs
    because different department has different routine techniques which needs to be follow for safety precautions
  77. radiation protection methods that must be used for chest radiography & for documenting these steps
    Shield gonads – protecting patient from unnecessary radiation by restricting the radiation beam using proper collimation
  78. importance of shielding the abdomen of pregnant women for chest radiographs
    Shielding the abdomen of pregnant women protects the unborn child from the radiation which could cause abnormalities when shield is not use
  79. chronic dilatation of the bronchi & bronchioles associated with secondary infection
  80. a potentially fatal condition; by far the most common pathologic process involving the lungs of hospitalized patients
    pulmonary embolism
  81. Blockage of a pulmonary artery by fat, air, tumor tissue, or a thrombus that usually arises from a peripheral vein (deep veins of the legs)
    pulmonary embolism
  82. localized tissue death (necrosis) in a part of a lung caused by an obstruction of a pulmonary artery and interruption of the normal blood supply
    pulmonary infarction
  83. projection that best demonstrates TB
    apical lordotic projection
  84. projection that best demonstrates pleural effusion
    routine lateral projection posteriorly
Card Set
RAD 111