1. _____— pattern of change that begins at conception and continues through life span
  2. –Maximum human life span relatively unchanged (how many years?)
  3. _______ — average number of years a person is expected to live when born in a particular year has changed
    Life expectancy
  4. ______ — number of years elapsed since person’s birth
    Chronological age
  5. ______ — in terms of biological health
    Biological age
  6. ______ — one’s adaptive capacities (age)
    Psychological age
  7. _____ — social roles and expectations related to one’s age
    Social age
  8. _____— interrelated set of ideas that helps to explain data, make predictions
  9. _____— assertions or predictions, often derived from theories that can be tested
  10. Best theories meet scientific criteria for a theory:
    • Comprehensive
    • Parsimonious
    • Testable
    • Productive – leads to new ideas & research
  11. Describe psychoanalytic theory
    • Development is primarily unconscious, heavy with emotion
    • Behavior is surface characteristic of development
    • Analyze symbolic meanings of behavior and deep inner workings of the mind for true meaning of development
  12. Describe Freud's theory
    • Id, ego, and superego create personality
    • Defense mechanisms and repression
    • Anxiety and defense mechanisms
    • Five stages of psychosexual development
    • Criticisms: overemphasized sexual instincts, unconscious is more important today
  13. Freud's stages
    • Oral 
    • Anal 
    • Phalic
    • Latency 
    • Gential
  14. Erickson's pyschosocial theory stages
    Image Upload 1
  15. Cognitive Theories
    Emphasize conscious thoughts
    Three major theories?
    • Piaget’s cognitive development
    • Vygotsky’s sociocultural cognitive theory
    • Information processing theory
  16. Emphasis on biology and evolution, sensitive periods of development, and careful observations (theory)?
    Ethological Theory
  17. Piaget’s cognitive developmental theory stages
    • Sensorimotor
    • Preoperaional 
    • Concrete operational 
    • Formal operational

    Child’s cognition is “qualitatively” different
  18. Vygotsky's sociocultural cognitive theory
    • Children actively construct their knowledge
    • Culture and social interaction guide cognitive development
    • Learning to use inventions of society
    • Learning from social interactions with more skilled adults and peers
    • Interaction creates tools to adapt to cult
  19. Information-Processing theory

    ____: important to development
    Good strategies
  20. ____ — scientific studies can only be based on direct observations and measures

    • Learned from experiences/environment
    • Development does not occur in stages; advocates continuity
  21. _____ theory

    Behavior, environment, and cognition are key to development
    Behavior is learned through observation and imitating (modeling)
    Behavior of others is cognitively evaluated, strategies created for successful learning
    Bandura’s social cognitive
  22. ____ research - research method that examines the relationships among two or more variables, does not imply cause and effect
    Prediction based on strength of relationship
    Correlation coefficient (+1.00 to -1.00)
  23. ____ Observation
    In the “field” or natural environment where behavior happens
  24. _____ Observations
    Laboratory situation set up to evoke behavior of interest
    All participants have equal chance to display behavior
  25. ____ Interview
    Flexible, conversational style
    Probes for participant’s point of view
  26. _____ Interview
    Each participant is asked same questions in same way
    May use questionnaires, get answers from groups
  27. Methods for Collecting Data
    • -Standardized test
    • -Case study
    • --Focus on aspects of individual’s life – Eve White, Phineas Gage
    • --Unique, cannot be duplicated
    • -Physiological measures
    • --Blood tests, MRI, GSR, stress hormones
  28. Experimental Design
    Methods for Collecting Data?
    • Causality and effect
    • Dependent (Y) and independent (X) variables
    • Control and experimental groups
    • Random assignment of subjects
    • Manipulation of independent (X) variable
  29. ___ Experiments
    Use rare opportunities for random assignment in natural settings
  30. ____ Experiments
    Compare differences in treatment that already exist
    Groups chosen to match characteristics as much as possible
  31. Time-Lag Research

    ____: Same participants studied repeatedly at different ages
  32. Time-Lag Research

    Participants of differing ages all studied at the same time.
  33. Time-Lag Research

    Several similar cross-sectional or longitudinal studies are conducted at varying times.
  34. Time-Lag Research
    Participants are presented with a novel task and their mastery is followed over a series of sessions.
  35. Conducting Ethical Research
    APA guidelines address
    Informed consent, confidentiality, protection from harm
    Debriefing, deception
    Minimizing bias (gender, culture, ethnicity)
    Ethnic gloss — overgeneralizing about ethnic group(s)
  36. ____: 2 copies of chromosome 21
    Down syndrome
  37. Sex-linked abnormalities

    ___ syndrome: XXY instead of XY

    ____ syndrome: X in boys is fragile, breaks

    ____ syndrome: girl is XO instead of XX

    ____ syndrome: link to criminal males unprove

    Fragile X


  38. Chemical marker that activates either father’s or mother’s gene
    Often temporary
  39. Sudden, permanent change in a DNA segment
  40. Gene-linked abnormalities

    ____ – treated by diet

    ____– red blood cells affected

    nCystic fibrosis, diabetes, hemophilia, spina bifida, Tay-sachs and Huntington diseases

    nCan sometimes be compensated for by other genes or events
    phenylketonuria (PKU)

    Sickle-cell anemia
  41. Heredity-environment correlations

    Parents provide/guide child’s interests
    Passive genotype-environment
  42. ____ genotype-environment

    nSome traits elicit more adult responses
  43. Heredity-environment correlations

    Child seeks/selects favorable environments
    Active (niche-picking) genotype-environment
  44. Prenatal Development stages
    • Germinal: creation of fertilized egg, implantation
    • Embryonic: cell differentiation of embryo
    • Fetal period: lasts for 7 months, 3 trimesters
  45. Teratogens

    Severity of damage affected by
    • Dose
    • Genetic susceptibility
    • Time of exposure
  46. Any agent or agents that can cause birth defects
  47. Stages of birth
    Labor occurs in three stages
    • Uterine contractions
    • Baby’s head begins to enter birth canal
    • Afterbirth (shortest stage)
  48. _____– from top (head) and gradual to bottom
    Cephalocaudal pattern
  49. _____ – center of body outward to extremities
    Proximodistal pattern
  50. Period of rapid physical and hormonal chang
  51. Physical changes; growth spurt

    úGirls – _____, hips widen, body hair

    ­Onset for most: 9 to 15 years of age

    úBoys – first ejaculation, grow taller, body hair

    ­Onset for most: 10 to 17 years of age
  52. ____— fertility declines
    ____— menstrual periods ceases
    Dramatic decline of estrogen; a negative experience for most women

  53. –____ — specialization of functions in one hemisphere of cerebral cortex
  54. Infancy – sleep/wake cycle
    Newborns average 16-17 hours a day
    Varied patterns; longest period is 11 pm to 7 am
    At 1 month – infants sleep more
    At 6 mos – closer to adult-like sleep patterns
    Most common problem – night waking
    Culture affects sleep patterns
    More REM sleep than any other time of life

    Shared sleeping with parents is controversial
  55. Adulthood and aging
    Many are sleep deprived (less than 7 hrs a day)
    Work, school, social, or family obligations
    Many adults don’t get enough sleep
    Middle age may bring sleep problems
    Wakeful periods at night, less deep sleep
    Many older adults go to bed and wake up earlier,
    Insomnia increases in late adulthood
  56. ____ memory
    Retains information up to 15 to 30 seconds without rehearsal (span is very limited
  57. ___memory
    Kind of mental workbench for manipulating and assembling information
    More active, powerful than short-term memory
  58. Remembering to do something in the future
    Age-related; declines depend on task
    Time-based tasks decline more
    Event-based tasks show less decline
    nProspective memory
  59. ___memory: routine skills and procedures performed automatically (unconscious memory)
  60. ____memory: one’s knowledge about world including field of expertise
  61. Explicit: conscious/declarative memory
  62. LTM 2 stsyems
    • explicit
    • Implicit
  63. ___ memory: retention of information about the where and when of events
  64. Working memory and processing speed
    Linked to aging, reading and math achievement
    Performance peaks at 45; declines at age 57
    Decline affects both new and old information
  65. Engaging in more extensive processing of information; use of examples, self-referencing
  66. Strategies used to improve
    • Rehearsal: repetition better for short-term
    • Organizing: making information relevant
Card Set
Mid term