Unit 1 test review

  1. what is osmosis
    Movement of solvent (water) across a selectively permeable membrane
  2. what is the pH scale
    acid- base concentration
  3. 1 on the pH scale means what?
    very acidic
  4. 7 on the pH scale means what
  5. 14 on the pH scale means what?
    very basic
  6. what are the 2 types of transport
    • active
    • passive
  7. What is required for active transport?
    ATP energy
  8. what is the difference between passive and active transport
    active transport requires ATP passive does not
  9. What determines whether or not a substance can passively permeate a membrane?
    • Lipid solubility of substance
    • Channels of appropriate sizeCarrier proteins
  10. Types of passive transport
    • Simple diffusion
    • Carrier-meditated facilitated diffusion
    • Channel-mediated facilitated diffusion
    • osmosis
  11. if the process needs to slow down or stop it creates a_____________ or enhancing it in a ____________ so that the whole process continues at a faster rate
    • negative feedback
    • positive feedback
  12. 2 major divisions _____- Head, neck, trunk. ____________- Limbs
    • axial
    • Appendicular
  13. Name the 9 regions of the body
    • Right hypochondriac region
    • Epigastric region
    • Left hypochondriac region
    • Right lumbar region
    • Umbilical region
    • Left lumbar region
    • Right iliac (inguinal) region
    • Hypogastric (pubic) region
    • left iliac (inguinal) region
  14. name the 4 quadrants of the body
    • Right upper quadrant Left upper quadrant
    • Right lower quadrant Left lower quadrant
  15. define organic compound
    contain carbon. Covalently bonded molecules, and many are large.
  16. define inorganic compound
    chemical substances that do not contain carbon these include water salts and many acids and bases
  17. what is anabolic reactions
    always involve bond formation. Type of synthesis reaction
  18. what is catabolic reactions
    reverse synthesis reactions, involve breaking of bonds. Decomposition reactions
  19. In blood clotting, the body sends lost and lots of platlets to stop the bleeding.... results in what type of feedback
  20. Home heating system is set @ 68 degrees. When the room drops below that temp, it is triggered on to bring the temp up.... results in what type of feedback
  21. name 4 of the 11 organ systems
    • integumentary
    • skeletal
    • muscular
    • nervous
  22. define the integumentary system
    forms the external body covering and protecting deeper tissues from injury
  23. define the skeletal system
    protects and supports body organs, and provides a framework for the muscles to use to cause movement
  24. define the muscular system
    allows manipulation of the environment, locomotion, and facial expression, maintains posture, produces heat
  25. define the nervous system
    fast-acting control system of body. Responds to internal and external changes by activating appropriate muscles and glands
  26. hair skin and nails are an example of what organ system
  27. joints and bones are example of what organ system
    skeletal system
  28. skeletal muscles are an example of what organ system
    muscular system
  29. brain and spinal cord are an example of what organ system
    nervous system
  30. name the 4 body cavities
    • dorsal
    • ventral
    • thoracic
    • abdominopelvic
  31. name the 2 subdivisions of the dorsal cavity and what they do
    • cranial cavity- encases brain
    • vertebral cavity- encases spinal cord
  32. name the 3 subdivisions of the thoracic cavity and what they do
    • 2 pleural cavities (each houses a lung)
    • Mediastinum- (contains pericardial cavity, surrounds thoracic organs)
    • Pericardial cavity- (encloses heart)
  33. name the 2 subdivisions of the abdominopelvic cavity
    • Abdominal- (contains stomach, intestines, spleen, and liver)
    • Pelvic- (contains urinary bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum)
  34. define histology
    Study of tissues
  35. define cytology
    Study of cells in the body
  36. define gross anatomy
    macroscopic, study of large body structures by the naked eye
  37. name the 6 levels of structural organization that make up the human body and what they involve
    • **Chemical- atoms and molecules
    • **Cellular- cells and their organelles
    • **Tissue- groups of similar cells
    • **Organ- contains two or more types of tissue
    • **Organ system- organs that work closely together
    • **Organismal- all organ systems
  38. define homeostasis
    Maintenance of a relatively stable internal environment despite continuous outside changes equilibrium
  39. what are the 5 characteristics necessary to maintain life
    • Nutrients
    • Oxygen
    • Water
    • Normal body temp
    • Appropriate atmospheric pressure
  40. name some examples of a monosaccharide
    glucose, fructose, ribose
  41. name some examples of a disaccharide
    sucrose, maltose, lactose
  42. what are the levels of protein structure
    • Primary
    • Secondary
    • Tertiary
    • Quaternary
  43. what are the 10 structures of organic compounds
  44. Carbohydrates monosaccharides
    • Disaccharides Polysaccharides
    • Lipids Triglycerides
    • Phospholipids Steroids
    • Eicosanoids Proteins
  45. what is the fluid mosaic model of plasma membrane
    bimolecular layer of lipids and proteins
  46. what happens to a cell when u put it into different solutions
    there is a change in volume which disrupts cell function
  47. what are the 6 planes of the human body
    • sagittal plane
    • midsagittal (median) plane
    • parasagittal plane
    • frontal (coronal) plane
    • transverse (horizontal) plane
    • oblique sections
  48. sagittal plane
    divides the body vertically into right and left parts
  49. midsagittal (median) plane
    lies on the midline
  50. parasagittal plane
    not on midline
  51. frontal (coronal) plane
    divides the body vertically into anterior and posterior parts
  52. transvers (horizontal) plane
    divides the body horizontally into superior and inferior parts
  53. oblique sections
    cuts made diagonally
  54. cephalic region
  55. abdominal
  56. pubic
  57. brachial
  58. femoral
  59. cervical
  60. throacic
  61. pelvic
  62. upper limbs
  63. manus
  64. pedal
  65. back region of the body
  66. directional term and example

    Toward the head end or upper part of the body of a structure or the body; above (ex. The head is superior to the abdomen
  67. directional term and example

    away from the head end or toward the lower part of a structure or the body; below (ex. The navel is inferior to the chin)
  68. directional term and example

    ventral (anterior)
    toward or at the front of the body; in front of (ex.the breastbone is anterior to the spine)
  69. directional term and example

    toward or at the midline of the body; on the inner side of (ex. The heart is medial to the arm)
  70. directional term and example

    Away from the midline of the body; on the outer side of (ex. The arms are lateral to the chest)
  71. directional term and example

    between a more medial and a more lateral structre (ex. The collarbone is intermediate between the breastbone and shoulder)
  72. directional term and example

    closer to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk (ex. The elbow is proximal to the wrist)
  73. directional term and example

    farther from the origin of a body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk(ex. The knee is distal to the thigh)
  74. directional term and example

    superficial (external)
    toward or at the body surface (ex. The skin is superficial to the skeletal muscles.)
  75. directional term and example

    deep (internal)
    away from the body surface more internal (ex. The lungs are deep to the skin)
  76. name the 6 types of energy
    • kinetic
    • potential
    • chemical
    • electrical
    • mechanical
    • radiant or electromagnetic
  77. kinetic energy
    energy in action
  78. potential energy
    stored energy that is, inactive energy that has the potential or capability but is not doing so
  79. chemical energy
    stored in the bonds of chemical substances
  80. electrical energy
    results from the movement of charged particles
  81. mechanical energy
    directly involved in moving matter
  82. radiant or electromagnetic energy
    energy that travels in waves
  83. protons have what type of charge
  84. the nucleus contains protons and what
  85. the nucleus has what kind of charge
  86. a neutron has what kind of charge
  87. an electron has what kind of charge
  88. what do acids do
    release hydrogen ions
  89. what do bases do
    take up hydrogen ions
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Unit 1 test review
unit 1