Chapter 4

  1. bi-
    twice, double, two
  2. -cele
    hernia, tumor, swelling
  3. dys-
    bad, difficult, or painful
  4. fasci/o
    fascia, fibrous band
  5. fibr/o
    fibrous tissue, fiber
  6. -ia
    abnormal condition, disease, plural of -ium
  7. -ic
    pertaining to
  8. kines/o, kinesi/o
    movement
  9. my/o
    muscle
  10. -plegia
    paralysis, stroke
  11. -rrhexis
    rupture
  12. tax/o
    coordination, order
  13. ten/o, tend/o, tendin/o
    tendon, stretch out, extend, strain
  14. ton/o
    tone, stretching, tension
  15. tri- thre
  16. abduction
    Movement of a limb away from the midline of the body
  17. adduction
    Movement of a limb toward the midline of the body
  18. adhesion
    A band of fibrous tissue that holds structures together abnormally
  19. ataxia
    The lack of muscle coordination during voluntary movement
  20. atonic
    Lacking normal muscle tone or strength
  21. atrophy
    Weakness or wearing away of body tissues and structures
  22. bradykinesia
    Extreme slowness in movement
  23. carpal tunnel syndrome
    Inflammation and swelling of the tendons that pass through the carpal tunnel, which then create pressure on the median nerve
  24. chronic fatigue syndrome
    A debilitating and complex disorder characterized by profound fatigue that is not improved by bed rest and may be made worse by physical or mental activity
  25. circumduction
    The circular movement at the far end of a limb
  26. contracture
    The permanent tightening of fascia, muscles, tendons, ligaments, or skin that occurs when normally elastic connective tissues are replaced with non-elastic fibrous tissues
  27. dorsiflexion
    Movement that bends the foot upward at the ankle
  28. dyskinesia
    Distortion or impairment of voluntary movement resulting in fragmented or jerky motions
  29. dystonia
    A condition of abnormal muscle tone that causes the impairment of voluntary muscle movement
  30. electromyography
    A diagnostic test that measures the electrical activity within muscle fibers in response to nerve stimulation
  31. epicondylitis
    Inflammation of the tissues surrounding the elbow
  32. ergonomics
    The study of human factors that affect the design and operation of tools and the work environment
  33. exercise physiologist
    A specialist who works under a physician's supervision to develop, implement, and coordinate exercise programs, and administer medical tests to promote physical fitness
  34. fasciitis
    Inflammation of a fascia
  35. fibromyalgia
    A debilitating chronic condition characterized by fatigue; diffuse or specific muscle, joint, or bone pain; and a wide range of other symptoms
  36. ganglion cyst
    A harmless fluid-filled swelling that occurs most commonly on the outer surface of the wrist
  37. heel spur
    A calcium deposit in the plantar fascia near its attachment to the heel bone
  38. hemiparesis
    Slight paralysis or weakness affecting one side of the body
  39. hemiplegia
    Total paralysis affecting only one side of the body
  40. hernia
    The protrusion of a part of a structure through the tissues normally containing it
  41. hyperkinesia
    Abnormally increased motor function or activity; also known as hyperactivity
  42. hypotonia
    A condition of diminished tone of the skeletal muscles
  43. impingement syndrome
    Inflammed and swollen tendons are caught in the narrow space between the bones within the shoulder joint
  44. insertion
    The point where the muscle ends by attaching to a bone or tendon
  45. intermittent claudication
    Pain in the leg muscles that occurs during exercise and is relieved by rest
  46. muscular dystrophy
    A group of more than 30 genetic diseases that are characterized by progressive weakness and degeneration of the skeletal muscles that control movement, without affecting the nervous system
  47. myasthenia gravis
    A chronic autoimmune disease that affects the neuromuscular junction and produces serious weakness of voluntary muscles
  48. myocele
    The herniation (protrusion) of muscle substance through a tear in the fascia surrounding it
  49. myoclonus
    The quick involuntary jerking of a muscle or group of muscles
  50. myofascial release
    A specialized soft-tissue manipulation technique used to ease the pain of conditions such as fibromyalgia, myofascial pain syndrome, movement restrictions, temporomandibular joint disorders, and carpal tunnel syndrome
  51. myolysis
    The degeneration of muscle tissue
  52. myoparesis
    Weakness or slight muscular paralysis
  53. myorrhaphy
    Surgical suturing of a muscle
  54. neuromuscular
    Pertaining to the relationship between a nerve and muscle
  55. oblique
    Slanted or at an angle
  56. origin
    The point where the muscle begins, located nearest the midline of the body or on a less movable part of the skeleton
  57. paralysis
    The loss of sensation and voluntary muscle movements in a muscle through disease or injury to its nerve supply
  58. paraplegia
    Paralysis of both legs and the lower part of the body
  59. physiatrist
    A physician who specializes in physical medicine and rehabilitation with the focus on restoring function
  60. plantar fasciitis
    Inflammation of the plantar fascia on the sole of the foot, causing foot or heel pain when walking or running
  61. polymyositis
    A muscle disease characterized by the simultaneous inflammation and weakening of voluntary muscles in many parts of the body
  62. pronation
    The act of rotating the arm or the leg so the palm of the hand or the sole of the foot is turned downward or backward
  63. quadriplegia
    Paralysis of all four extremities
  64. sarcopenia
    The loss of muscle mass, strength, and function that come with aging
  65. shin splint
    A painful condition caused by the tibialis anterior muscle tearing away from the tibia (shin bone)
  66. singultus
    Myoclonus of the diaphragm that causes the characteristic hiccup sound with each spasm; also known as hiccups
  67. sphincter
    A ring-like muscle that tightly constricts the opening of a passageway
  68. sprain
    An injury to a joint, such as ankle, knee, or wrist, which usually occurs when a ligament is wrenched or torn
  69. tenodesis
    The suturing of the end of a tendon to a bone
  70. tenolysis
    The release of a tendon from adhesions
  71. tenorrhaphy
    The surgical suturing together of the divided ends of a tendon
  72. tenosynovitis
    An inflammation of the sheath surrounding a tendon
  73. tenotomy
    A surgical incision into a tendon
  74. torticollis
    • A stiff neck due to spasmodic contraction of the neck muscles that pull the head toward the affected side
    • also known as wryneck
  75. transverse
    In a crosswise direction
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Chapter 4
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chapter 4
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