pharm exam 5

  1. functional areas of the brain
    • reticular
    • limbic
    • extrapyramidal
  2. define reticular activating system
    nerve fibers that travel throughout the brainstem and cerebrum
  3. reticular activating system controls
    • conscious
    • arousal
    • alertness
    • concentration
  4. define limbic system
    neurons around hypothalamus and lower portion of cerebrum
  5. limbic system controls
    • emotional and behavioral responses associated with:
    • reward/punishment
    • sexual
    • anger/rage
    • fear
    • anxiety
    • pleasure sorrow
    • learning/memory
  6. extrapyramidal system
    somatic motor pathway located in CNS and controls sk musc. tone and movement
  7. inhibitory neuroT
    • GABA
    • dopamine
  8. excitatory neuroT
    • acetylcholing
    • NE
    • EPI
    • serotonin
  9. neuroT that are out of wack in

    depress
    mania
    anxiety
    parkins
    bipolar
    schitzo
    • no NE/Serotonin
    • much NE/serotonin
    • no GABA
    • much Acetylcholine
    • -
    • much dopamine
  10. factors that lower pain threshhold
    • anxiety
    • sleeplessness
    • fatigue
    • anger
    • fear
    • fright
    • iso
    • discomfort
  11. factors that raise pain threshhold
    • sleep
    • rest
    • diversion
    • empathy
    • meds
    • music
  12. acute pain
    chronic
    visceral
    somatic
    • sudden/subsides
    • persistant/6month/hard to treat
    • sm musc/diff to treat
    • sk musc/ local/easy to treat
  13. what are the major receptor sites for opiod analgesics
    mu and kappa
  14. what is the most potent analgesic
    morphine
  15. morphine side effects
    • sedation
    • euphoria
    • dysphoria
    • constipation
    • urinary retention
    • miosis
    • resp depression
    • hypot t
    • brady
    • bronch constrict
    • emesis
    • anti emetic
  16. morphine is additive w/ ___
    decresed with __
    shoulnt be given with ___
    used caustiously with ___
    • alcohol
    • smoking
    • head injuries
    • chronis airway limitations
  17. define PCA pump
    continuous infusions of opiods
  18. narcan
    • -opiod antagonist
    • -
  19. what are the major non opiod analgesics
    • acetemetaphine
    • salicylates
    • NSAIDS
  20. which are analgesic, anti pyretic, anti inflammatory, anti platelet
    acetemetaphine=analgesic/ant pyretic

    salicylates/NSAIDs/cox-2 inhibitors= all 4
  21. define neuroleptanesthesia
    general anesthisa admin. IV given with inhalation of a weak ansethetic
  22. stages of sleep
    • 1 (NREM)- aware, relaxed, 4-5% of sleep
    • 2 (NREM)- unaware, easily woke, 50% of sleep
    • 3 & 4 (NREM)- slow wave, delta, high amp, low freq, phys rest, 20-25% of sleep
    • REM- high autonomic activity,, dreams, mental restoration, 20-25% of sleep
  23. define sedative
    state of calmness when given in divided doses
  24. define hypnotic
    given at bedtime in larger doses than a sedative
  25. what are the drugs used for hypnotics and sedatives
    • barbituates during surgery
    • benzo used post-op
  26. uses for benzodiaz
    • anxiety
    • depression
    • preanesthesia
    • withdrawl
    • seizures
  27. which drugs can cause physical or phycological dependence
    • barbituates
    • antianxiety
    • opiod analgesics
  28. uses for barbituates
    • sedative low dose
    • hypnotic high dose
    • OR
    • anesthetic
    • anti convulsant
  29. -In unibipolar there is a deficiency of__
    -in bipolar there is a def of __ in depressive cycle and ___ in manic cyle
    • - NE and serotonin
    • - NE and serotonin
    • - excess
  30. in schitzophrenia there is an___
    excess of dopamine
  31. in drug induced parkinsons there is ___
    excess of acetylcholine
  32. Narcan only reverses
    opiod overdose
  33. drug of choice for suicide attempts
    barbituates
  34. NSAIDs are given for
    mild pain
  35. most commonly prescribed anticonvulsant
    phenytoin(Dilantin)
  36. define orthostatic hypertension
    adverse effect of MAO inhibitors
  37. patients taking MAO inhibitors should
    • - rise slowly
    • -NO food with tyramine, will cause hypertensive emergency
  38. Barbituates

    1) MOA

    * remember
    1) increase GABA, reduce neuro activity(retic form and cereb cortex), depress CNS,

    nonselective, habit forming, narrow therap. index
  39. barbituates side effects
    • CNS depress
    • cns excitement
    • insomnia
    • anxiety
    • hypersensitivity
    • resp. depress
    • toxicicty
    • chronic poison
  40. CNS stimulants are used to treat
    • restore mental alertness
    • stimulate resp center
    • hyperactivity
  41. agents used therapeutically as CNS stimulants
    • amphetamine
    • anorexiants
    • analeptics
  42. define epilepsy
    chronic neurologic disorders charecturized by sporadic recurrent episodes of convulsive seiz, sensory disturbances, ab. behavior, loss of conscious,
  43. define status epilepticus and treatment
    • -last at least 15 min
    • -benzos and valium┬ávia IV, Ativan, cerebyx
  44. drug of choice for absence seizures
    Zarontonin
  45. most causes of epilepsy are
    unknown
  46. mu, kappa and delta are
    major receptors for opiod agonist
  47. amphetamines
    • stimulate relase of NE
    • increased alertness, less fatigue, elevated mood
  48. typical antiphycotics
    • -block dopamine type 2 receptors in brain
    • -control only + symptoms of schitzo
  49. typical antiphycotics side effects
    • serious movement disorders (EPS)
    • dystonia
    • akathisisa
    • brady and pseudoparkin
    • tardive dyskinesia
    • weight gain
    • sexual
    • ADH
  50. atypical antiphycotics
    • block serotonin receptors and dopamine
    • control + and - symptoms
    • have few side effects
  51. atypical antiphycotics side effects
    • movement disorders
    • seizures
    • metabolic
    • endocrine
    • sedation
  52. shitzo positive symptoms
    • delusions
    • hallucinations
    • dissorginized or catatonic behavior
  53. schitzo neg symptoms
    • affective
    • flattning
    • blunting
    • alogia
    • annedonia
    • avolition
    • inatentiveness
  54. if a patient taking Thorazine developes exces symptoms,
    dr can give Cogentin
  55. define selegiline
    • antidepressant
    • treat parkinsons
    • selective, ireversablie MAO inhibitor
  56. exogenous depression
    • reactive
    • most common
    • in response to real stimuli such as greif and illness
  57. enogenous depression
    • major
    • unipolar
    • manifested by inability to experience pleasure or cope with life
  58. enogenous depression meds
    • tricyclic antidepressants ( TCA)
    • selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors(SSRI)
    • MOA
    • atypical depressants
  59. most antidepressants act by
    inhibiting the reuptake of NE and serotonin
  60. lithium
    • -antimanic drug
    • -narrow therapeutic index
    • -monitored for blood concentration toxicity
    • -metallic taste is an early sign of toxicity
  61. ___ are used last to treat depression because__
    • MAO inhibitors
    • dietary restrictions
  62. which drugs are used to treat EPS adverse effects
    anti cholenergic
  63. what drug is used in acute gout
    colchincine
  64. which drug is used in prophylaxis gout
    • probenecid
    • allopuurinol
  65. which drugs are used for gout after first 48 hrs
    • ibuprofen
    • corticosteriods
  66. what increases the effect of GABA
    • benzos
    • barbs
  67. asprin
    should not be given to children under 18 because of reyes syndrome
  68. class of seizures
    • partial-simple
    • complex-impared conscious
    • generalized-convulsive,non convulsive
    • tonic clonic-grand mal
    • tonic- large muscle group
    • clonic- dysrythmic
    • myoclonic- unaltered conscious, isolated
    • absence- brief loss of conscious,
    • atonic- head drop
  69. cerebrum
    • top
    • voluntary activities
  70. brain stem
    • -thalamus
    • hypothalamus
    • pons
    • medulla
  71. thalamus
    sensory
  72. hypothalamus
    temp, water balance, apetite, sleep, ANS, endocrine glands
  73. pons
    respiration
  74. medulla
    regulates vitals
  75. cerebellum
    coordinates movement, posture and equillibrium
  76. bipolar disorders
    • unrelated to life
    • increase catecholamine
  77. drugs that stimulate cns
    • anorexiants
    • cocaine
    • amphetamines
    • analeptics
    • ritalin
  78. uriosuric drugs
    used to treat gout
  79. define gout
    • -inborn error of metabolism
    • -disorder of metabolism in uric acid that is not -properly excreted from the body
    • -deposits in joints
  80. meds used to treat acute gout attack
    • colchin
    • NSAIDS
    • cortico
  81. meds used to prevent gout attck
    • allopurinol
    • probenecid
  82. GABA plays a major role in
    • anxiety
    • depression
    • sleep
  83. positive symptoms
    excess or distortion
  84. negative symptoms
    reflection of loss or diminuiton
Author
ChelseaL
ID
333125
Card Set
pharm exam 5
Description
pharm exam 5
Updated