1. Abortion
    termination of pregnancy
  2. Missed Abortion
    Natural termination. Products of conception must be surgically removed to prevent sepsis in the mother.
  3. Spontaneous Abortion
    Natural termination. Products of conception are expelled without surgical intervention.
  4. Elective Abortion
    Pregnancy terminated. Can be during 1st or 2nd trimester. 36 states have bans on late term abortions (past 24 weeks).
  5. Incomplete Abortion
    Products of conception partially retained. May need surgical intervention.
  6. Lugols Solution
    Used to stain the vagina and cervix during a colposcopy. Normal epithelium tissue stains brown, while cancerous tissue does not. Makes it easier for biopsy or resection of cancerous cells.
  7. Monsels Solution
    Applied to the cervix by way of large cotton swabs to control bleeding. Looks like mustard but turns black when mixed with blood.
  8. Anteversion
    refers to anatomical direction of organ. Uterus may be in anteversion or rotated forward.
  9. Retroflexion
    refers to anatomical direction of organ. Uterus may be in retroversion or rotated backwards.
  10. Ectopic
    Occurs when the fertilized egg implants anywhere other than the uterus. The Fallopian tube is the most common site.
  11. Culdocentesis
    Extraction of fluid from the rectouterine pouch with a needle. Used to diagnose ectopic pregnancy or pelvic inflammatory disease (PID).
  12. Cystocele
    Bladder herniates into the vagina. Usually caused by weakened pelvic floor from childbirth.
  13. Rectocele
    Herniation of the rectum into the vagina. Caused by childbirth or from hysterectomy.
  14. Myomectomy
    Removal of uterine fibroids through an abdominal incision.
  15. Cervical Cerclage
    Placement of a large Dacron or Mersilene tape or large stitch around the cervix at the level of the internal os to prevent spontaneous abortion. 3 types: a. Shirodkars (involves permanent stitch, so C-section will be necessary)b. McDonalds (most common, removed before baby born)  c. Transabdominal cervicoisthmic cerclage (performed through an abdominal incision when the cervix is too short).
  16. Episiotomy
    Intentional surgical incision in the vulva to ease the childbirth process and to protect the mother from uncontrolled perineal lacerations.
  17. Hysteroscope
    Gyn instrument used to visualize the inside/interior of the uterus. Patient in lithotomy position. Contains sheath, obturator, scope and biopsy punches. Connects to camera which is hooked up to a monitor. Uterus distended with saline. Imperative to keep track of input/output to monitor if uterus ruptures.
  18. Leimyofibroma
    Benign fibroids of the uterus. Originates in the myometrium and the accompanying connective tissue of the uterus. Usually multiple and a frequent indication for a hysterectomy.
  19. Supracervical Hysterectomy
    Procedure where only the uterine body is removed. Cervix left in place.
  20. Endometriosis
    Endometrial tissue occurs outside the uterus. Appears as small red spots on abdominal tissue. Causes immense pain.
  21. Tubal Ligation
    Permanent method of reproductive sterilization. Reversal cannot be guaranteed. May be performed open, vaginally, or laparoscopic. A variety of  techniques used: ligation, cauterization, clips, coils.
  22. Endometrial Ablation
    Used to treat menorrhagia with a heated balloon probe. The balloon is inserted through the cervix and is expanded with D5W conforming to the contour of the uterus. The solution is then heated to 188* for 8-10 minutes. This procedure stops or decreases menstral bleeding.
  23. Chocolate cyst
    benign cyst of the ovary that contains dark syrupy contents from old blood.
  24. Dermoid cyst
    sac filled with hair and sebaceous material found in the ovary.
  25. Prepuce
  26. Calculi
  27. Hypospadias
    Urethral opening occurs on the underside of the penis(ventral)
  28. Epispadias
    Urethral opening on the upper aspect of the penis or too far anteriorly in females (dorsal)
  29. Phimosis
    condition affecting the prepuce that prevents it from retracting over the glans penis; tight foreskin
  30. Cryptorchidism
    one or both testicles fail to descend into the scrotum during the first year of life
  31. Torsion
    Twisting of the testicle, spermatic cord. Emergent surgical intervention necessary to prevent necrosis of the testis
  32. Cystitis
    inflammation of the bladder
  33. Lithotripsy
    crushing of a stone
  34. Uremia
    accumulation of urine products in the blood due to kidney failure
  35. KUB
    flat plate abdominal x-ray to visualize kidney, ureters and bladder
  36. Cystogram
    x-ray visualization of the bladder with use of contrast media
  37. Retrograde Pyelogram
    x-ray visualization of the ureters and kidneys following injection of contrast media through a ureteral catheter
  38. Intravenous urogram (IVU)
    previously called IVP; x-ray visualization of the ureters and kidneys following intravenous dye injection
  39. Hydrocele testis
    accumulation of fluid around a testicle, fairly common, tunica vaginalis
  40. TURP
    transurethral resection of the prostate; most common surgical procedure for BPH (benign prostatic hypertrophy)
  41. Circumcision
    removal of prepuce of penis with a Gomco or Plastibell clamp
  42. Urinary Incontinence
    inability to control urine
  43. BPH
    benign prostatic hypertrophy
  44. Straight catheter
    made of rubber; do not have retention balloon; aka red robinson
  45. Foley catheter
    most commonly used retention catheter; always test patency of balloon and fill with sterile water; usually put in OR after induction; can have 3rd lumen for irrigation/hemostatic purposes
  46. Coude catheter
    firm rubber tip to facilitate a passage through a false urethral passage or beyond urethral strictures
  47. Filiforms
    flexible, varying sizes, used to bypass ureteral obstructions or to dilate urethra
  48. Vasovasostomy
    re-anastomosis of the vas deferens following a vasectomy
  49. Resectoscope
    Looped electrosurgical device inserted through the urethra to remove all or part of the prostatic capsule to reinstate normal urine flow
  50. Elik Evacuator
    glass container with rubber bulb used to remove prostatic tissue during a TURP
  51. Methyline Blue
    Blue dye injected through IV, absorbed by kidneys and released in urine to check ureter patency
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