stem cells types

  1. types of stem cells
    • Embryonic stem cells
    • Tissue-specific stem cells
    • Mesenchymal stem cells
    • Induced pluripotent stem cells
  2. ...... cells are obtained from the inner cell mass of the ....., a mainly hollow ball of cells that, in the human, forms  .......days after an egg cell is fertilized by a sperm.
    • Embryonic stem
    • blastocyst
    • three to five
  3. Embryonic stem cells are ......, meaning they can give rise to every cell type in the fully formed body, but not the ..... and .....
    • pluripotent
    • placenta and umbilical cord
  4. These cells are incredibly valuable because they provide a renewable resource for studying normal development and disease, and for testing drugs and other therapies.
    embryonic stem cell
  5. Human embryonic stem cells have been derived primarily from ......  created by ...... for assisted reproduction that were no longer needed.
    • blastocysts
    • in vitro fertilization (IVF)
  6. Tissue-specific stem cells (also referred to as )
    • somatic stem cells
    • adult stem cells
  7. more specialized than embryonic stem cells.
    Tissue-specific Stem Cells
  8. can generate different cell types for the specific tissue or organ in which they live.
    Tissue-specific Stem Cells
  9. For example, blood-forming (or hematopoietic) stem cells in the bone marrow can give rise to red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets.
    Tissue-specific Stem Cells
  10. Some tissues and organs within your body contain small caches of tissue-specific stem cells whose job it is to replace cells from that tissue that are lost in normal day-to-day living or in injury, such as those in your skin, blood, and the lining of your gut.
    Tissue-specific Stem Cells
  11. can be difficult to find in the human body, and they don’t seem to self-renew in culture
    Tissue-specific Stem Cells
  12. seem to self-renew in culture easily
    embryonic stem cell
  13. However, study of these cells has increased our general knowledge about normal development, what changes in aging, and what happens with injury and disease.
    Tissue-specific Stem Cells
  14. “mesenchymal stem cell” aka
  15. refer to cells isolated from stroma, the connective tissue that surrounds other tissues and organs.
    Mesenchymal Stem Cells
  16. Mesenchymal Stem Cells
    Cells by this name are more accurately called “......” by many scientists.
    stromal cells
  17. the first MSCs were discovered in the  and were shown to be capable of making bone, cartilage and fat cells
    bone marrow
  18. MSC
    Since then, they have been grown from other tissues, such as ........and ......
    fat and cord blood
  19. being tested as treatments for a great many disorders, but there is little evidence to date that they are beneficial.
  20. Scientists do not fully understand whether these cells are actually stem cells or what types of cells they are capable of generating.
  21. are cells that have been engineered in the lab by converting tissue-specific cells, such as skin cells, into cells that behave like embryonic stem cells.
    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells
  22. critical tools to help scientists learn more about normal development and disease onset and progression, and they are also useful for developing and testing new drugs and therapies.
    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell
  23. While iPS cells share many of the same characteristics of ......., including the ability to give rise to all the cell types in the body, they aren’t exactly the same.
    embryonic stem cells
  24. For one thing, the first ..... cells were produced by using viruses to insert extra copies of genes into tissue-specific cells.
  25. Researchers are experimenting with many alternative ways to create .....cells so that they can ultimately be used as a source of cells or tissues for medical treatments.
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stem cells types