HazMat Technician 2 Training

  1. How are communication effected during an incident and in full level A suit? What is effective in solving the problem?
    • Problems:
    • -speaking over hand held radios difficult
    • -person to person communication impossible

    • Solution:
    • -throat or bone mike most effective in overcoming the problem
    • -establish hand arm signals
  2. Responders in full gear should be closely monitored for loss of...
    • -mobility and dexterity
    • -vision
    • -communication capabilities
    • -suit integrity
  3. What level suit should back-up personnel wear?
    Same level protection suit as responders
  4. When should rehabilitiaion programs be established? What do they allow?
    Rehabilitation programs should be established prior to working in the hot zone.

    • They allow for:
    • -replenishment of fluids
    • -allow for rest and recovery
  5. What is the difference between SOP and SOG?
    • SOP - followed in order
    • SOG - more of a guideline
  6. What are 4 emergency problems that can occur for personnel working in vapor protective clothing?
    • -loss of air supply
    • -loss of suit integrity
    • -loss of verbal communications
    • -man down in hot zone
  7. What should reference for maintenance, storage, inspection, and testing procedures of protective equipment?
    Manufacturer's guidlines
  8. What should be recorded in a log book?
    • -maintenance procedures
    • -testing procedures
    • -inspection procedures
    • -storage procedures
  9. What are the bulk / non-bulk pressure vessel leaks that a HazMat tech can control?
    • -fusible metal plugs and plug threads
    • -side wall cylinders
    • -valve (blowout, gland, inlet thread, seat, stem assembly blowout)
  10. What are the 4 types of leaks that can occur on a drum?
    • -bung leak (on bungs)
    • -chime leak (on chime ring)
    • -fork lift puncture
    • -nail puncture

    (flammability should be considered for all)
  11. What is the most difficult drum leak to deal with?
    Forklift puncture
  12. What are the three overpack techniques?
    • -Rollers (rolling slide-in)
    • -V-shape (slide-in)
    • -Upside down (slip over)
  13. What are the safety considerations for overpacking a 55 gal drum?
    • -overpack / recovery drums must be compatible with the product
    • -use proper lifting techniques to avoid strain
    • -use caution when moving drums to reduce possibility of injuries to hands and feet
    • -always use appropriate PPE and respiratory equipment
  14. What is another name for a DOT dome clamp? What is it used for?
    Specialty clamp

    Used for 406, 407, 412
  15. What are the safety precautions to approaching a leak from a dome?
    • -eliminate ignition source
    • -must come from upwind
    • -control and confine
  16. What are proper maintenance procedures for tools and equipment?
    Follow the procedures outlined by the manufacturer of the equipment provided by the AHJ
  17. What are proper inspection procedures for tools and equipment?
    Follow the procedures outlined by the manufacturer of the equipment provided by the AHJ
  18. Results for checking the area for contamination should always be confirmed with another source except two. What are they?

  19. What are the consideration for assessing a leak or spill inside a confined space without entering an area?
    • Oxygen-deficient (bellow 19.5%)
    • Flammable or toxic atmosphere
    • Engulfment hazard
  20. What are the safety considerations for product transfer operations?
    • -bonding
    • -grounding
    • -elimination of ignition sources

    (shock hazards)
  21. Define binding in product transfer operations
    The process of connecting two or more conductive objects together by means of a conductor; it is done to minimize potential differences between conductive objects, thereby minimizing or eliminating the chance of static pressure.
  22. Define grounding in product transfer operations
    The process of connecting 1 or more conductive objects to the ground through a grounding rod. It is done to minimize or eliminate potential differences between objects and ground.

    Use OHM meter
  23. What are the four leaks to a 406, 407, 412 cargo tank and what can be used to fix it?
    Dome cover leak: specially designed dome clamps

    Irregular-shaped hole: use compatible patches

    Puncture: use compatible patches

    Split or tear: use compatible patches
  24. Before a product inside is transferred, what must considered?
    • -inherent risk associated with such operations
    • -procedures and safety precautions
    • -equipment required (you must have appropriate equipment; more important than personnel)
  25. What are the methods by which you do a product transfer for 406, 407, 412, 331 and 338 cargo tanks?
    • 406, 407, 412:
    • -vacuum trucks
    • -power take off (PTO) pumps
    • -portable pumps (air, electrical gasoline, diesel)

    • 331, 338:
    • Pressure transfer including:
    • -compressed air or inert gas
    • -vapor pressure
    • -vapor compressor
    • -vapor compressor and a liquid pump
  26. When determining the effectiveness of action options, what should you check for?
    • -the effectiveness of how HazMat response personnel are being used
    • -established control zones
    • -containment or confinement operations
    • -decontamination process
    • -PPE
  27. What must the responder ask themselves when evaluating the effectiveness of control functions?
    • -is the incident stabilizing?
    • -is the incident increasing in intensity?
    • -ongoing process by all personnel
  28. When should HMTs withdraw to a safe location?
    When they have no reason to remain on the site, and nothing can be done to mitigate the situation
  29. What should you check for when evaluating the decontamination process?
    • -contamination levels are reduced as personnel move thru decontamination
    • -contaminated items are controlled and collected for disposal
  30. What is technical decontamination?
    The process subsequent to gross decontamination designed to remove contaminants from responders, their equipment, and victims.

    It is intended to minimize the spread of contamination and ensure responder safety along with verification that no HazMat enters the cold zone.
  31. What are the three types of decontamination?
    • -Emergency decon
    • -Mass decon
    • -Technical decon
  32. What is emergency decon?
    It can occur at any point for rapid reduction of agent from skin. It does not eliminate secondary decontamination.
  33. What is mass decon?
    Rapid reduction of agent from skin of many contaminated victims. It is performed as quickly as possible while also practicing contamination avoidance.
  34. What is technical decon?
    Deliberate decontamination of responders, equipment, and evidence. 

    It emphasizes neutralization of the agent. Speed is not a factor.
  35. When the agent is unknown, what does OSHA require wearing?
    Positive pressure SCBA
  36. What setting should the water be during decon?
    High volume, low pressure (so contaminates do not permeate protective equipment and get on skin)
  37. At what temperature shold a dry method be considered for decon?
    Bellow 36
  38. What are the methods of decon?
    • Physical
    • Chemical
    • Prevention
  39. How should ambulatory victims be organized?
    • After evacuating the upwind and uphill of a hazard...
    • -separate the victims who are showing symptoms (symptomatic) from those not showing symptoms (asymptomatic)
    • -collect personnel items
    • -provide special consideration for families, small children, elderly, and special need persons
  40. What are the physical methods of decontamination?
    Involves the physical removal of contaminant from the contaminated person. Generally the chemical properties remain unchanged.

    • -absorption
    • -brushing and scraping
    • -isolation and disposal
    • -vacuuming
    • -washing
  41. What are the advantages, limitations, plus examples of decontamination via absorption?

    • Advantages:
    • -absorbents readily available
    • -may be suitable to decontaminate equipment and surrounding area more than for decontaminating personnel

    • Limitations:
    • -absorbed contaminant remains hazardous
    • -requires PPE when handling absorbed contaminant
    • -limited application for decontaminating personnel

    • Examples:
    • Soil, sand, absorbent pillow / pads
  42. What are the advantages and limitations of decontamination via brushing and scraping?
    • Advantages:
    • -can be used with wet and dry decon methods and performed on equipment, personnel, and PPE
    • Limitations:
    • -while this method can reduce contaminants concentration, contaminant remains unchanged
    • -contaminant must be controlled to protect people, property, and environment
  43. What are the advantages, limitations, plus examples of decontamination via isolation and disposal?
    PHYSICAL METHOD (a form of dry decon, to remove contaminated items and transport them to a disposal facility)

    • Advantages:
    • -eliminates immediate threat to people, property, environment

    • Limitations:
    • -requires encapsuating item for transport
    • -cross contamination risk

    • Examples:
    • removing contaminated cover from monitoring equipment and disposing of it in the waste
  44. What are the advantages, limitations, plus examples of decontamination via vacuuming?
    PHYSICAL METHOD (sucking contaminant from surface)

    • Advantages:
    • -effective for removing granular size particles from hard to reach surfaces
    • -won't cause increase in volume of hazard

    • Limitations:
    • -static electricity and fine dust created in the process can cause an explosion
    • -specialized equipment required

    • Examples:
    • -vacuuming up particles from an explosion that had created or contained radioactive particles
  45. What are the advantages and limitations of decontamination via washing?
    PHYSICAL METHOD (remove contaminant with water or soapy water)

    • Advantage:
    • -easiest way to decon since resources readily available
    • -materials not soluble in water can be washed with detergents

    • Limitations:
    • -hazards not neutralized, just suspended in water
    • -control of hazardous runoff
  46. What are the chemical methods of decontamination?
    Using chemical methods to destroy or inactivate agent.

    • -adsorption
    • -chemical degradation
    • -disinfection
    • -neutralization
    • -solidification
    • -sterilization
    • -dilution
    • -evaporation
  47. What are the advantages, limitations, plus examples of decontamination via adsorption?
    CHEMICAL DECONTAMINATION (contaminant sticks to sorbent surface)

    • -if applied in correct quantity it can leave less residual contamination than absorption

    • LIMITS:
    • -creates heat that could cause spontaneous combustion
    • -not normally readily available
    • Activated charcoal, silica or aluminum gel, fuller's earth, other clays, porous clays
  48. What are the advantages, limitations, plus examples of decontamination via chemical degredation?
    CHEMICAL DECONTAMINATION (to let contaminant degrade itself over time by allowing it to age)

    • -inexpensive
    • -reduces or eliminates resource requirements

    • LIMITS: 
    • -requires sufficient time for the material to degrade itself over time by allowing it to age
    • -weather and location of the spill must be favorable

    • -evaporation of a flammable liquid
    • -chlorine based products lose potency in air over time
    • -destruction of etiological contamination by UV light
    • -declining levels of radioactivity
  49. What are the advantages and limitations of decontamination via disinfection?
    CHEMICAL DECONTAMINATION (the process used to destroy the majority of recognized pathogenic material)

    • -increasing importance due to bio and chem threats

    • LIMITS: 
    • -does not cause complete destruction of microorganism
  50. What are the advantages, limitations, plus examples of decontamination via neutralization?
    CHEMICAL DECONTAMINATION (too add a chemical or contaminant, in order to change its chemical structure, with the goal of eliminating or rendering it harmless)

    • -eliminates contaminates toxicity and thereby eliminating secondary threats

    • LIMITS: 
    • -the neutralizing chemical may not be readily available, which could pose a problem if time is of the essence in controlling the spread of hazard

    • EXAMPLES: 
    • Neutralizing a corrosive with a weak product of the opposite power of hydrogen (pH)
  51. What are the advantages and limitations of decontamination via solidification?
    CHEMICAL DECONTAMINATION (to add a chemical to the contaminant that will convert its physical state from liquid to solid)

    • -makes confinement, containment quicker, and disposal easier
    • -lowers or eliminates the containment's vapor hazard

    • LIMITS: 
    • -could pose additional problems when liquid contaminant increases in volume as it solidifies
    • -the resulting solid must be disposed of properly when the incident is over

    • Adding a catalyst to a liquid substance in order to harden it.
  52. What are the advantages, limitations, plus examples of decontamination via sterilization?
    CHEMICAL DECONTAMINATION (the process of destroying all microorganisms in or on object)

    • -preferred method of decontaminate medical equipment

    • LIMITS: 
    • -limited field application due to size of equipment
    • -cannot be used to decontaminate personnel

    • EXAMPLES: 
    • Steam, concentrated chemical agents, or ultraviolet light radiation
  53. What are the advantages, limitations, plus examples of decontamination via dilution?
    CHEMICAL DECONTAMINATION (to lower the concentration of a miscible liquid containment, by adding non-hazardous liquid solution)

    • -if the diluting solution is water, it is readily available in large quantities
    • -especially effective on water-soluble items

    • LIMITS: 
    • -some containment require an inordinate amount of dilution solution
    • -run-off must be collected and disposed of properly
    • -could create large amounts of diluted waste

    • Decontaminating a piece of equipment by flushing it with copious amounts of water.
  54. What are the advantages, limitations, plus examples of decontamination via evaporation?
    CHEMICAL DECONTAMINATION (to allow contaminant to evaporate)

    • -no resources are required, no approach needed by people

    • LIMITS: 
    • -there must be sufficient time to evaporate
    • -weather conditions must favor evaporation
    • -not as effective as porous surfaces and could take a long

    • Allowing a large a large amount of gasoline to to evaporate.
  55. What three categories do decontaminants fall under?
    Miscellaneous (commercial, easily expended and not readily replaceable so responders must understand them)


    Standard Military
  56. When resources are low, what is the decontaminant of choice?
    • Soap and water
    • Water
    • Household bleach (full strength 5 but should be diluted to 0.5 or 1:10)
  57. What is UV light capable of killing (for decontamination)?
    Biological agents (but NOT spores)
  58. Removing the clothing during decontamination removes how much contamination approximately?
    50% to 80% contamination
  59. When setting up technical decontamination corridor, where should it be established?
    Away from the emergency decontamination corridor
  60. True or False:
    Emergency decontamination is a formal decontamination process.
    False, it is gross decon only
  61. What organizations control waste management?
    • DOT
    • EPA
    • OSHA
  62. What are the 4 places you can go for help in technical decon?
    • 1) best source is manufacturer of product
    • 3) local and regional poison control
    • 4) national response center
  63. The ultimate responsibility for decontamination plan falls under who?
    Incident commander
  64. Define Technical Decontamination
    The planned and systematic process of reducing contamination level that is as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA)
  65. How many individuals should man the decon line?
  66. Who determines the degree of decontamination?
    Incident Commander
  67. What are the methods that may be useful in assessing the effectiveness of decontamination?
    • Visual observations (stains, corrosive effects)
    • Monitoring devices
    • Wipe sampling
  68. What are the three fundamental stages of decontamination?
    • Primary (Gross contamination removal)
    • Secondary (Residual contamination removal)
    • Tertiary (PPE removal and personal shower)
  69. What kind of patients do decontamination operations involve?
    • Ambulatory
    • Non-ambulatory
  70. What is the process overview for technical decontamination involving ambulatory and non-ambulatory victims?
    • -separate ambulatory and non-ambulatory
    • -select appropriate decon method based on contaminant
    • -protect airways and injuries appropriately
    • -collect and tag possessions, as appropriate (it becomes evidence)
  71. What is the focus of mass decontamination?
    The physical removal of the contaminant.
  72. During mass decon, what should be distributed to victims for secondary decontamination?
    Liquid soap
  73. What are the three most important reasons for decontaminating exposed victims?
    • -Removing the agent from the victims skin, thus reducing agent exposure and physical effects
    • -Protect emergency responders, medical personnel and others from secondary transfer exposure
    • -Preventing victims from spreading contamination over additional areas
  74. What are the 5 basic steps for the process of mass decontamination?
    • 1) initial size-up
    • 2) victim control and decontamination triage
    • 3) decontamination setup
    • 4) mass decontamination conduct
    • 5) post decontamination
  75. What procedure should be used to wash the victim?
    Rinse-wash-rinse procedure
  76. What are three components to debriefing?
    • Direction
    • Participation
    • Solution
  77. When should a debrief take place?
    It should be identified in LERP or SOPs and as soon as practical so that responders have a fresh recall of the incident details.

    It does not have to be conducted at same time with everyone.
  78. Who should be involved in the debrief?
    Identified in LERPs and SOPs

    Incident commander

    A facilitator

    Should involve all participants
  79. What are the three components to an effective critique?
    • Direction
    • Participation
    • Solutions
  80. Who should be involved in the critique?
    Identified in LERP and SOPs

    Representatives responding agencies or groups that were on the scene participating in the operations or command functions

    Individuals responsible for training, revising SOP, and ERP
  81. What written documents should be prepared as a result of a critique?
    • -Identified in LERP and SOP
    • -A written critique report
    • -Site safety plan
    • -Written elements of the plan of action
    • -All hazardous materials teams can benefit from published / publishing critiques in any of the national emergency service magazines
  82. Who should the exposures of HazMat be reported to?
    Medical director
  83. What is the exposure information found in a log book?
    • -type of exposure people where subjected to
    • -the exposure level and length (hot zone entry / exit logs)
    • -type of PPE used
    • -type of decon underwent by personnel
    • -any on scene medical assistance received
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HazMat Technician 2 Training
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