Respiratory Acidosis: acute? compensated? Causes?
- Acute: pH: 7.25 (~7.4), PCO2: 60mmHg (primary disturbance), HCO3-: 26mmol/L
- Compensated: pH ~7.32, PCO2 is still high (can't fix), HCO3- is rising: 32mmol/L
- Causes: Airway obstruction, Opioid drugs, anesthetics, Disease/injure to the phrenic n.; COPD, RDS, fibrosis of lung
Respiratory Alkalosis: Acute, Compensated, Causes?
- Acute: pH is >7.4, PCO2 <<40 (primary disturbance), HCO3- is remained ~22mmol/L
- Compensated: pH ~7.42, PCO2 still low (can't fix), HCO3-: decreased <22mmol/L
- Causes: Hyperventilation, Anxiety, fever, hypoxia (high altitude),
Metabolic Acidosis: Acute, Compensated, Causes?
- Acute: almost not observe b/c respiratory system will compensate quickly
- Compensated: pH still <7.4, PCO2 is decreased (<35mmHg), HCO3- still low (primary disturbance)
- Causes: high acid production: diabetic ketoacidosis, lactic acidosis, chronic renal failure
- loss of HCO3-: Diarrhea, renal tubular acdosis (failure to secrete H+ and reabsorb HCO3-)
Metabolic Alkalosis: Acute, Compensated, Causes?
- Acute: not seen
- Compensated: pH still high but close to normal (7.4),
- PCO2: increased (>40mmHg)
- [HCO3-]: remains high (primary disturbance)
- Causes: Vomitting, pyloric stenosis, excessive consumption of antiacids, nasogastric suction