Quality Management/ Hospital/ Organization/ Radiology Organization
Quality Management: process that monitors and evaluates the quality of care and services provided to patients within a health care facility.
- A QA program monitors proper patients scheduling, reception, and preparation.
- It also involves image interpretation and outcome analysis.
- The hospital in its entirety is viewed as responsible for all departments to oversee, coordinate, and integrate its activities and functions.
Quality Control (QC)
- Once image is produce, it must be evaluated, then analysis of each image is done to identify deficiencies and artifacts, and to minimize image repeats.
- Designed to ensure that the Radiologist is provided with optimal images produced through good equipment performance and resulting in minimal patient radiation dose.
- Main motives are to increase efficiency, quality of care and to save money.
- Patient safety/ Effective patient care.
- Reduction in radiation exposure/ Consistent image quality.
- Departmental effectiveness/ Cost-effectiveness.
Patient Safety/ Effective Patient Care
- Technologists must watch for any changes in patients condition while in their care.
- Example - reaction to contrast media.
Reduction in Radiation Exposure/ Consistent Image Quality
- ALARA should always be used.
- As Low As Reasonably Achievable.
- Proper technical factors (high kVp & Low mAs).
- High speed image receptor systems.
- Use of proper filtration.
- Avoid repeat examinations.
- Using shielding.
Department Effectiveness/ Cost-effectiveness
- Decreasing risks to employee and medical staff.
- Example - back injury due to lifting heavy patients or heavy equipment.
Philosophy/ Mission Statement
- Philosophy: Most hospitals strive to deliver the highest quality patient care and services.
- Mission Statement: Guiding force that outlines the organizations reason for existence and defines what should be done.
- Governing Board.
- Hospital Administration.
- Information Systems.
- Support Services.
- Human Services.
- AKA Executed Board.
- The Establish goals, policies, financial plans, and hires the director, or administrator.
- Make sure that suitable facilities and equipment are provided, and that staff of well trained professional, technical, and support personnel is present.
- Hospital may have more than one administrators who have clearly defined areas of responsibilities for multiple departments.
Two Types of Admissions
- Emergent: usually happens when a patient is seen in the ER and admitted to the hospital.
- Elective: occurs when a doctor requests a bed for a patient on a specific day.
Hospital Information System (HIS)
- A computer system that manages all medical and administrative information allowing health care providers to do their job effectively.
- Cor Systems: Scheduling admission/ discharge.
- Business & Financial Systems: payroll/ accounts receivable.
- Communications & Networking Systems: Integration of all parts of HIS/ order entry & resulting reporting.
- Departmental Management Systems: Needs of individual departments can be met.
- Medical Documentation Systems: Collecting/ Organizing/ Storing/ Presenting, QA.
- Medical Support System: Assistance in interpreting data, issue alerts, providing advice.
HIS for Different Departments-Nursing System (NIS).
- Improve staff schedules.
- Accurate patient charting.
- Clinical data integration.
- Radiology nurse will do charting, or the Radiologists, not the technologists.
HIS for Different Departments-Radiology Information System (RIS).
- Provide billing services.
- Appointments & scheduling.
- Reporting & database storage.
HIS for Different Departments-Pharmacy Information Systems (PIS).
- Helps pharmacists monitor how meds are used in hospitals.
- allows users to supervise drug allergies and other medication related complications.
- Allow users to detect drug interactions and help with proper drugs based on patient's physiologic factors.
- They must buy everything that a business needs to operate.
- Acquiring goods and services for the best possible cost and at the best possible time to benefit others.
- Prepare financial papers for internal and external vendors.
- Write monthly reports if financial information is accurate.
- Perform accounts receivable duties.
- Assist with preparing hospital budget.
- Creating ledgers and financial analysis reports.
- Prepare financial statements monthly.
- Provides direct care, resources and education to patients, family, staff members and the community.
- Patient and family services
- Interpreter services.
- Chaplain Services.
- Medical social workers.
- Children's education services.
- Bereavement program.
- Parent resource center/ support coordinators.
- Patient transporters, aids.
Human Resources (HR)
The department of a business or organization that deals with the administration, management, and training of personnel.
- Clinical Services.
- Clinical Support Services.
- Physician: A person qualified to practice medicine.
- Referring Physician: A physician who sends patients to another doctor for specialty care or services.
- Attending Physician: A physician who has admitting privileges at a hospital and physician with primary responsibility for the care of a patient in a particular case.
- Intern Physician: A recent medical school graduate gaining practical experience.
- Resident Physician: Licensed physician in an education program to become certified in a specialty area.
- Hospitalist Physician: Treat only hospitalized patients. It frees up primary care physicians from hospital duties and focus on their outpatient care.
Clinical Support Services
- Services to provide components of patients care that collectively support the physicians plan for diagnoses and treatments.
- Rehabilitative Therapy.
- Each hospital offers a variety of specialized services in their community:
- Physical Therapy.
- Breast Imaging Center.
- Surgical Center.
- Speech Therapy.
- Critical Care Unit (CCU or ICU).
- Designated Stroke Center.
- Oncology Center.
- Administrators/ Managers.
- Radiologist Assistant.
- Radiology Nurses.
- Radiologists Assistants (RA).
- AKA Director of Radiology.
- Has direct responsibility and authority for operation and organization of the department including staffing, educating, supervising, organizing, coordinating, communicating and maintaining safety.
- Physician specialist in diagnostic imaging.
- Radiologists are physicians specializing in the branch of medical science that use radiation and radioactivity in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.
- They read or interpret diagnostic imaging films.
- Examples, X-rays, Mammos, CT, MRI's, US.
- AKA Radiologists Technologists.
- Radiographers work in hospitals, outpatient medical imaging centers, physicians offices, or mobile imaging companies producing image of the human body as an aid in the diagnosis of disease and injury.
- Able to radio-graph the entire body to include assisting in fluoroscopic procedures.
- Radiographer must always use ALARA when doing radio-graphic procedures.
Radiologist Assistants (RA)
Assist a radiologist by taking family history, describing a procedure, performing fluoroscopic procedures, ordering additional images and making preliminary judgments of images.
- Typically designated to work in Radiology only.
- Starting IV's.
- Monitoring vital signs.
- Sunctioning patients.
- Insertion of foley catheters.
- Administering sedation.
- Ensure optimal equipment performance and protect patients and physicians from radiatin hazards.
- Responsible for resolving theoretical and practical problems of measurements of ionizing radiations under clinic conditions.
- Information System Staff.
- Clerical Staff.
Information Systems Staff
Monitor the operations of the hospitals information system and identify and assist in resolving problems/ issues arising in their operation.
- AKA Front desk staff.
- Answer phones.
- Scheduling patients for examinations.
- Ordering examinations for outpatients.
- Assisting doctor's offices for reports and answering questions.
- Contact physicians when requested by the Radiologist.
- Program Director.
- Clinical Coordinator.
- Didactic Instructor.
- Clinical Instructor.
- Clinical Staff.
- Responsible for developing and implementing program policies that are compatible with accreditation and institutional requirements and policies.
- Oversees ongoing program assessment.
- Assumes the leadership role in the continued development of the program.
- Assures effective program operations.
- Overseeing the clinical education and rotation components.
- Correlates clinical educaton with didactic education.
- Evaluates students.
- Coordinates student clinical rotation schedule.
- Evaluating effectiveness and of all clinical rotations and assuring appropriate supervision levels in the clinical setting.
- Person who teaches Radiologic Technoogy classes on campus only.
- Prepares and maintains course outlines and objectives, instructs students and reports progress.
- Participate in the assessment process.
- Reponsible for record keeping, clinical instruction, clinic competency testing, and evaluating students.
- Evaluates students competencies.
- Understand the sequences of didactic instruction and clinical education.
- Techonolgists must be registered as RT through the AART.
- Understand requirements for student supervision.
- Understand the clinical competency system.