All creatures are influenced by nature's cyclic changes, especially the daily pattern of light and darkness. Among the most important for us, humans are those known as _____, bodily patterns that repeat approximately every 24 hours.
Concerning circadian rhythms, internal control of these recurring rhythms resides in our ____, where our biological clock set cadence of such functions as metabolism, HR, temp., and hormonal activity.
A group of cells in the hypothalamus that receive input from the eyes, so it is especially sensitive to light-dark cycles?
When living for long periods in environments with no ____, most people settle into a circadian cycle closer to 25 hours.
The slightly longer than 24 hr. timespain of our natural circadian cycle sheds light on the condition known as ____
S/S of jet lag
Temp. cognitive deficits
____ sleep is marked by fast brain waves and rapid eye movement
_____ reports typically contained either brief descriptions of ordinary daily events or no mental activity at all.
____ reports were filled with vivid cognition, featuring fanciful, bizarre scenes, often of an aggressive nature.
During REM, voluntary muscles in the rest of the body remain immobile, in a condition known as ____.
REM: A stage of sleep that occurs approximately every ____ minutes, marked by a burst of rapid eye movements occurring under closed eyelids. REM sleep period is associated with ____.
What is a condition in which a sleeper is unable to move any of the voluntary muscles except those controlling the eyes?
Normally occurs during REM
Stages of sleep
Stage1: Slower ____ activity, fast ___ brain waves, similar to a waking stage
States2: Slower EEG, punctuated by ____-short burst of fast electrical activity.
Stage3: HR and breathing ____, ____ waves appear for the first time.
Stage4: Activity _____,____ point of sleep.
Evolutionary psychology suggest sleep may be evolved to enable animals to conserve ____, and stay out of _____ way.
Sleep improves ____, ___, and problem solving
Sleep can be __________ to the mind and body.
Sleep is thought to help the brain flush out the day's accumulation of _______ information.
Unwanted and useless
What are some s/s of sleep debt?
afternoon drowsiness (especially after a meal)
Feeling sleep when thought to be bored.
Normal response of boredom is____
Sleep deprivation is associated with ____ gain, decreased _____, devastating effects on _____ and ____ functioning.
What was the result of the sleep deprivation group compared to a legally drunk group?
Makes you stupid
Sleepy groups performed just like the drunk group when tested on thinking and coordination
What is the theory that dreams begin with random electrical activation coming from the brain stem? The storyline of dreams are the brain's attempt to make sense of this random activity.
Concerning the activation-synthesis theory,
The brain needs constant stimulation to grow and develop. During sleep, the brain blocks out external stimulation, so stimulation is provided from within by form _____.
____ is usually diagnosed when people feel dissatisfiedï with the amount of sleep they get.
Chronic inability to fall asleep, frequent arousal during sleep, early-morning awakening.
What is the most common sleeping disorder?
Self-treating with _____ or OTC sleep aids disrupt the normal sleep cycle by cutting REM sleep periods shorter.
Use of sleep medication, side effects such as _____ and morning _____ still plague some users.
An altenrative is psychological treatment employing ______, remarkable effective to avoid insomnia.
Cognitive behavioral therapy
What is a disorder of REM sleep, involving sleep onset REM periods and sudden daytime REM sleep attacks usually accompanied by cataplexy?
What is the most unusual sleep disorder?
What a sudden loss of muscular control?
Anything can trigger narcolepsy episode, ____ is a common trigger.
Narcolepsy is believed to stem from a ______ affecting sleep control circuitry in the brain stem.
Another probable reason: diminishing supply of _____ a chemical produced by the hypothalamus.
____ is a useful tool for researchers studying the mind-body connection.
By using normal volunteers under hypnosis, an experimenter can induce ________ mental conditions, such as anxiety, hallucinations, or depression, instead of finding individuals who already have the mental condition(s).
Hypnosis is an effective tool in diminishing _____, used in relaxation programs to combat ____, eliminate ______ such as smoking, and or to forget an event (before or during hypnosis).
When a patient forget an event during or before hypnosis, it is called
Hypnosis can also treat for pain, but the patient must be willing to believe it.
T or F
Form of consciousness change induced by focusing on a repetitive behavior, assuming certain body positions, and minimizing external stimulation
Produces relaxation, changes in brain waves and density, and decrease in stress hormones.
Recent subject of scientific study; previously not considered valid topic for research
Research finds many changes in the brain that may affect ___, ___, ___, ____.
empathy, self-awareness, attention, and stress.
Experienced meditators show changes in ________, especially in ____ lobe activity, associated with positive emotions
One study using MRI scans to study the brains of people before and after eight weeks of meditation training found that the hippocampus and parts of the frontal lobes _____ in size in the meditators as compared to a control group.
brain wave patterns
Chemicals that affect mental processes and behavior by means of their effects on the brain.
Most widely abused drugs stimulate the brain’s “reward circuits.”
Substances “trick” our brains by making our bodies think that these substances are good for us.
Side effects of mariguana
Impaired motor coordination, perceptual ability, and reaction time
THC accumulates in the body, increasing the effects of next use
Over time, the brain shrinks in areas processing memory and emotion
Smoke inhalation damage
Marijuana binds with brain cannabinoid receptors.
Effect on consciousness:
lack of ability to sense satiety
Alter perceptions of the external environment and inner awareness; also called psychedelics
_____ accounts for more than half of illicit drug use.
______ of a drug refers to the diminished psychoactive effects after repeated use.
____: the need to use more to receive the desired effect
Some habitual cannabis users become psychologically addicted to its pleasurable effects, craving it so often that it interferes with other pursuits, including school or work.
Personality consists of all the psychological qualities and processes that bring continuity to all individual's behavior in different situations and across different times.
It requires an integration of everything we have studied.-learning, preception, development, motivation, emotion, and everything else-in an attempt to understand the individual as a unified whole-whole-person perspective.
______ is also the collective term for all the qualities that make us who we are. All in this, in turn, is embedded in the context of our culture, social relationships, and developmental level.
______ is defined as the biologically based personality dispositions that usually appear in early childhood and that establish the foundation of the personality and the mood of an individual's approach on life.
Shyness or moodiness are example of
_______ do affect our basic personalities.
It is suspected that individual differences in tempermanet also arise from the balance of _____ in the brain, which may, in turn, have a genetic basis.
Modern biological psychology has replaced the humors with _____.
___ and _____ interact, with initially inherited characteristics becoming amplified-or perhaps muted-over time because they produce social signals telling others to either approach and play or stay away.
What are multiple, presumed stable personality characteristics presumedto exist within the individual and guide his or her thoughts and actions under various conditions?
Traits are the product of ______.
Hidden psychological processes
____ is as the foundation of personality, deeply rooted in our biological nature.
____ as the multidimensional structrue built on the foundation of temprament but also influenced by experience.
What is a trait perspective suggesting that personality is composed of 5 fundamental personality dimensions.
Name them, also.
Five-factor(Big 5) theory
Openness to experience
If you were clinical or counseling psychologists, you might wnt to assess a client's personality on the Big 5 factors what inventory would you use?
NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI)
MMPI-2 is used to evaluate . . .
Does the MMPI-2 measure the Big 5 personality dimensions?
What is reliability?
What is validity?
An attribute of a psychological test that gives consistent results.
An attribute of a psychological test that actually measures what it is being used to measure.
What is MMPI-2 stand for?
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
At the ____ in personality, Freud placd the _____, the mind's hidden, seething cauldron of powerful impulses, instincts, motives, and conflicts that energize the personality; no awareness.
In Freudian theory, this is the psychic domain of which the individual is not aware but that is the storehouse of repressed impulses, drives, and conflicts unavailable to consciousness.
What does the above describe?
What are the unconcious drives?
Thanatos-death instinct (anger)
Concerning the structure of the personality,
Is the primitive, uncouncious reservoir-basic motives, drives, and instinctive desires-Eros and Thanatos.
Act on ____ seeks immediate _____.
Concerning the structure of the personality,
In charge of values and morals, common notion of conscience. Set of internal rules based on experience and nurture.
Concerning the structure of the personality,
What is an individual's view of the kind of person he or she should strive to become?
Concerning the structure of the personality,
The rational, conscious portion of the mind. like a referee often must make decisions that satisfy no part of the personality completely, but it keeps the whole out of trouble.
As the boy goes through the stages of psychosexual development, resolution of the Oedipal conflict requires him to . . .
Displace (shift)his emerging sexual desires away from his mother
Directing them instead to females of his own age
Development of identification (mental process by which an individual tries to become like another person)
_____ also called inquiring intellect, curiosity, independence (at the opposite pole: closed-mindedness, low curiosity, unimaginative)
Openness to experience
_______, also called dependability, goal-directedness, perseverance, superego strength, prudence, or constraint (at the opposite pole: impulsiveness, carelessness, or irresponsibility)
_____, also called social adaptability, assertiveness, sociability, boldness, or self-confidence (at the opposite pole: introversion, shyness)
_____, also called warmth and likeability, with those on this end of the continuum taking a prosocial approach to others (at the opposite pole: coldness, negativity, or antagonism)
_____, also called anxiety or emotionality (at the opposite pole: emotional stability or emotional control)
“I don’t have a problem.”
This defense avoids a difficult situation by simply denying that it exists. Denial is a defense frequently seen, for example, in people with drinking problems, people who have problems managing anger, and people who engage in risky behavior, such as casual, unprotected sex.
A student who feels stressed by academic pressures may decide to cheat on a test, rationalizing it by saying that “everyone does it.” People using this defense mechanism give socially acceptable reasons for actions that are really based on motives that they believe to be socially unacceptable.
We see reaction formation in people who, troubled by their own sexual desires, rail against “dirty books” in the city library or seek coercive laws regulating other people’s sexual behavior. This ego defense mechanism occurs whenever people act exactly in opposition to their unconscious desires.
When your boss makes you angry, you may later displace your anger by yelling at your friend or pounding on the wall. More generally, displacement involves shifting your reaction from the real source of your distress to a safer individual or object.
Under stress, some people hide; others cry, throw things, or even wet their pants. That is, they regress to an earlier developmental stage by adopting immature, juvenile behaviors that were effective ways of dealing with stress when they were younger.
When sexual energies are bottled up, the person may seek more socially acceptable outlets by engaging in intense creative actions or in excessive work activities. Freud conjectured that sublimation was responsible for some of civilization’s major advances.
When some personal attitudes or values cannot be fully accepted or owned up to, they can be directed outward as characteristics of others.
A person in a committed relationship who is feeling attracted to someone else accuses his or her partner of cheating
Social psychology studies the influence of what on a person’s behavior, thoughts, and feelings?
How people’s thoughts, feelings, perceptions, motives, and behavior are influenced by their interactions with others.
Important theme involves how the power of the social situation can dictate human behavior.
2. What is the main determinant of individual behavior, according to social psychologists?
What is situationism?
What is dispositionism?
Situationism (this chapter)
the external environment, or the behavioral context, can have both subtle and forceful effects on people’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviors
Dispositionism (last chapter)
Tendency to attribute behavior to internal factors such as genes, personality traits, and character qualities
What are social norms?
A group’s expectations regarding what is appropriate and acceptable for its members’ attitudes and behavior
What is the chameleon effect?
Chameleon Effect: unintentionally mirroring the body position and mood of others around us, leading to contagious yawning, contagious arm folding, hand wringing, face rubbing…
What did Solomon Asch study?
8. What factors increased rate of conformity in Solomon Asch’s studies? What was the number of confederates that maximized the likelihood of conformity occurring in his studies?
Describe Stanley Milgram’s research. What were his most important findings? What percentage of teachers went all the way up to the maximum shock level? When was obedience to an authority figure most likely?
11. What is a key implication of Stanley Milgram’s research?
Kitty Genovese incident led to important research on under what situations people help.
What phenomenon was depicted by the Kitty Genovese case?
Bystander problem, diffusion of responsiblity .
What is the best predictor of whether a bystander will intervene in an emergency situation?
The speed of response by those in this situation depended on the number of bystanders they thought were present.
14. What is diffusion of responsibility?
Diffusion of Responsibility
Dilution or weakening of each group member’s obligation to act when responsibility is perceived to be shared with all group members
16. What actual event is discussed in relation to the Stanford Prison Experiment and shares many relevant characteristics with it?
Describe the Stanford Prison Experiment. To what do the authors attribute the behavior of the participants in the Stanford Experiment? (Is it to individual power or to systems of power?)