Theories & Modules 1A

  1. What are the principles of Erikson's Pyschosocial Stages of Development
    1. 8 Stages that describe how people evolve morally from infant stage to adulthood.

    2. In each stage the individual confronts a set of challenges that results in encounter or crisis development that builds on the successful completion of earlier stages.

    3. Failure to complete these stages may lead to future problems. 

    4. The Society, Environment and Culture of the child is taken into consideration.
  2. What it the first stage of Erikson's Psychosocial Development
    Trust vs. Mistrust

    • 1. Birth to 1.5 yrs old
    • 2. Infants develop a sense of trust in self and others through the meeting of basic needs by the caregiver.
    • 3. If the basic needs are not met then the child may become withdrawn and have difficulty trusting people.
  3. What is the 2nd Stage of Erikson's Pychosocial Development?
    Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt

    1. Ages 1.5 to 3 yrs old - (Same as Freud's Anal Stage).

    2. The child gains controls of their limited functions and mobility and exhibit characteristics of holding on and letting go.

    3. Children in this stage begin to feed, wash and dress themselves and use the bathroom.

    4. Failure in this stage results in Shame & Doubt if parents expect their children to learn these skills too soon or refuse to allow the child to perform task that are within their capabilities.

    • 5. It can result in:
    • Fear of losing Self Control
    • Immature obsessiveness and procrastination
    • Stubbornness
    • Self-Restraint
  4. What is the 3rd stage of Erikson's Psychosocial Development?
    Initiative vs. Guilt

    1. Ages 3 to 6 yrs. old (same ages as Freud's Phillac Stage)

    2. Planning independence from their caregiver

    3. Are able to make choices at what activities they are interested in. This includes risk taking behavior such as crossing the street alone or riding a bike without a helmet.

    4. Failure in this stage involve denial or self-restriction which may impede the child from developing their inner capabilities.
  5. What is the 4th Stage of Erikson's Psychosocial Development?
    Industry vs. Inferiority (Same as Freud's Latency Stage). 

    1. Ages 6 - 11 yrs. old. 

    2. Begin to become more aware of themselves as individuals.

    3. They work hard at being responsible, workers and potential providers.

    4. School and peer groups are necessary for gaining & testing mastery.

    5. Failure at this stage (psychological dangers) include a sense of inferiority, incompetence and conformity.
  6. What is the 5th Stage of Erikson's Psychosocial Development?
    Identity vs. Identity Confusion

    1. Adolescence - 13 to 19 yrs old (Same as Freud's Genital Stage)

    2. The adolescence is concerned about how they are viewed by others.

    3. The create an identity from different learned characteristics to make a whole person.

    4. Peer pressure is more powerful than parental pressure. 

    5. Failure in this stage (Psychological danger) include excessive conformity or rebelliousness, idealism and/or delinquency.
  7. What is the 6th Stage of Erikson's Psychosocial Development?
    Intimacy vs. Isolation - Young Adulthood (20 to 34 yrs. old) 

    1. Looking to enter a relationship with others in an involved reciprocal manner.

    2. Failure to achieve intimacy can lead to isolation and distancing.
  8. What is the 7th Stage of Erikson's Psychosocial Development?
    Generativity vs Stagnation

    1. Adulthood - Middle age (35 to 65 yrs. old)

    2. Concerned about contributing to society and guiding the next generation through compassion, caring and concern for others.

    3. Psychosocial danger is stagnation. Stagnation involves primarily caring for oneself and artificial intimacy with others.
  9. What is the 8th Stage of Erikson's Psychosocial Development?
    1. Integrity vs. Despair (Late Adulthood) Age 65 and up

    2.Being satisfied with their achievements and significant relationships.

    3. Psychological Danger is Despair. Despair is a feeling that time is too short to start another life. Despair is accompanied with hopelessness, impending death, regret and self-criticism.
  10. What are the Theoretical approaches used in the Clinical Practice Approach
    1. Psychosocial - focuses on intrapsychic and interpersonal change.

    2. Problem Solving - cognitive–behavioral intervention that focuses on an individual's ability to cope with stressful life experiences.

    3. Behavior Modification - A therapeutic approach designed to change a particular undesirable negative behavior by using positive or negative consequences.

    4. Cognitive Therapy - a reduction of negative thoughts and dysfunctional beliefs.

    5. Crisis Intervention - brief treatment to a crisis in order to restore normalcy.

    6. Family Therapy - A type of psychotherapy designed to identify family patterns that contribute to negative behavior or mental illness in order to help the family members break those habits.

    7. Group Therapy - uses members of the group to help each other with similar problems to find new solutions.

    8. Narrative Therapy - The stories clients tell about themselves reveal how the construct their perceptions and reality. 

    9. Ecological or Life Model - Focuses on Life Transitions, environmental pressures and maladaptive behavior between individual and family. 

    10. Task Centered - Focuses on completing task to strengthening self-esteem and restore successful methods for coping.
  11. What are the Social Work Values
    1. Worth of the Individual.

    2. Right of the Individual to access services.

    3. Right of the individual to fulfill their potential without regard to race, religion, gender, class or sexual orientation.

    4. Self Determination.

    5. Confidentiality.
  12. Assimilation
    Adding new information or experiences to an existent schema, without having to adjust our previous knowledge.
  13. Accommodation
    Information or experience that requires you to re-evaluate and change your existent schemas.
  14. Theory of Mind
    The realization that people are living creatures just like them and each has their own mind, experiences, history and knowledge.
  15. Egocentric
    Thinking the whole world revolves around the individual and has difficulty taking the point of veiw from others.
  16. Name the Season and ages of Levison's Seasons of Adulthood
    1. Early Adulthood Transition (18 -20 yrs old) - Seeks independence by separating from family

    2. Entrance into the world (21 - 27 yrsl old) Experiment with different careers and lifestyles

    3. Transition (Ages 28-32) - Make lifestyle adjustements

    4. Settling Down (Ages 33 - 39) Experiences greater stability

    5. Pay-off years (Ages 45-65) Is self-directed and engages in self-evaluation
  17. Conservation
    The realization that an object remains the same even if their shape changes.

    Used in the Concrete Operational Stage

    Eg. - Imagine you have two identical cups of water, and you show them to a kid in the preoperational stage. You ask her which one has the biggest amount of liquid, and she answers they are the same. Then, you take a third cup, thinner and taller than the other two. In front of the child, you take the water from one of the regular cups and pour it into the tall cup. You ask again: "Which one has the biggest amount of liquid?" All kids point to the tallest cup because they don't understand the concept of conservation.
  18. What are the First Stages of Kohlberg Moral Development

    • FOCUS: Self
    • AGES: Infant to 10-13 years of age, most peoplebehavior motivated by anticipation of pleasure or pain.

    STAGE 1: PUNISHMENT AND OBEDIENCE (Infancy): No difference between doing the right thing and avoiding punishment

    STAGE 2: SELF-INTEREST (Pre-School): Interest shifts to rewards rather than punishment - efforts are made to secure the greatest benefits. Avoidance of physical punishment and deference to power.

    Punishment is an automatic response of physical retaliation.

    The immediate physical consequences of an action determine its goodness or badness. The atrocities carried out by soldiers during the holocaust who were simply "carrying out orders" under threat of punishment, illustrate that adults as well as children may function at stage one level. "Might makes right."QUESTIONS: What must I do to avoid punishment? What can I do to force my will upon others?
  19. What is the 2nd Level of Kohlberg Moral Development
    Conventional Stage

    • Stage 3: Conformity and Interpersonal Accord (School-age)
    • Eg. The "good boy/girl" level. Effort is made to secure approval and maintain friendly relations with others.

    • Stage 4:Authority and Social Order (School-age).
    • Eg. Orientation toward fixed rules. The purpose of morality is maintaining the social order. Interpersonal accord is expanded to include the entire society.
  20. What is the 3rd Level of Kohlberg Stages of Moral Development

    Stage 5:Social Contract (Teens) - Mutual benefit, reciprocity. Morally right and legally right are not always the same. Utilitarian rules that make life better for everyone. 

    Stage 6: Universal Principles (Adulthood): Morality is based on Principles that transcend mutual benefit.
  21. What is the 1st stage of Sigmun Frued Pyschosexual Development?
    Oral Stage (Birth - 18 months)

    Child focused on oral pleasures. Too much or too little oral gratification results in preoccupational or stagnation in phase.
  22. What is the 2nd stage of Sigmun Frued Pyschosexual Development?
    Anal Stage (18 months - 3 years)

    Focus of pleasure is on eliminating and retaining feces. Because of stress from society and parents, child has to learn to control anal stimulation. Anal retention leads to cleanliness, anal expulsiveness leads to messiness.
  23. What is the 3rd stage of Sigmun Frued Pyschosexual Development?
    Phallic Stage (3 years - 6 years)

    Pleasure zone switches to genitals. Oedipus complex sets in, person has unconscious sexual desires for their mother, wishes to displace their fathers
  24. What is the 4th stage of Sigmun Frued Pyschosexual Development?
    Latency Stage (6 years - puberty)

    Sexual urges remain repressed, or unknown to conscious mind. Children interact and identify mostly with same sex peers.
  25. What is the 5th stage of Sigmun Frued Pyschosexual Development?
    Genital Stage (Puberty and on)

    Adolescents direct their sexual urges toward opposite sex's genitals. Your personality is determined by what you believe gives you the best chance at mating.AdvertisementUpgrade to remove ads
  26. What is the 1st stage of Margaret Mahlers Theory of Object Relations
    Birth to 1 month

    I. normal autismfulfillment of basic needs for survival and comfort
  27. What is the 2nd stage of Margaret Mahlers Theory of Object Relations
    • 1- 5 months 
    • II. symbiosis development of awareness of external source of need fulfillment
  28. What is the 3rd stage of Margaret Mahlers Theory of Object Relations
    5- 10 months 

    III. separation-individuation

    a.differentiationcommencement of a primary recognition of separateness from the mothering figure
  29. What is the 4th stage of Margaret Mahlers Theory of Object Relations
    Ages 10- 16 months

    III. separation-individuation

    b. practicingincreased independence through locomotor functioning; increased sense of separateness of self
  30. What is the 5th stage of Margaret Mahlers Theory of Object Relations
    • 16- 24 months
    • III. separation-individuation

    c. rapprochementacute awareness of separateness of self; learning to seek "emotional refueling" from mothering figure to maintain feeling of security
  31. What is the 6th stage of Margaret Mahlers Theory of Object Relations
    • 24- 36 months
    • III. separation-individuation

    d. consolidationsense of separateness established; on the way to object constancy; resolution of separation anxiety
  32. What are the Current Social Work Practice Models
    • Problem Solving
    • Task-Centered
    • Solution – Focused
    • Narrative
    • Cognitive-Behavioral
    • Crisis
  33. Problem Solving
    The problem solving model focuses on understanding the problem, brainstorming possible solutions, having the client pick a solution, having the client try out a solution and then evaluating how the solution worked.
  34. Task-Centered
    This model focuses on breaking down the problem into small tasks that the client can accomplish. The social worker may use rehearsal, deadlines, and contracts, in order to help the client feel successful and motivated towards solving the problem.
  35. Solution Focused
    This model starts with the solution and then helps the client establish the steps that will lead to the solution. This model is the one that uses the miracle question to help clients envision the future that they want to obtain.
  36. Narrative Theory
    Focus on the stories people tell about their lives. These stories are interpreted through their subjective personal filters.

    Interventions are designed to reveal and reframe the way clients structure their perceptions of their expectations
  37. What is Developmental Theories
    • Developmental theories focus on how behavior changes and stays the same across the life
    • cycle.
  38. What are the characteristics of the Developmental Theory
    Human development occurs in clearly defined stages

     Each stage of life is qualitatively different from all other stages.

    •  Stages of development are sequential, with each stage building on earlier
    • stages.

     Stages of development are universal.

     All environments provide the support necessary for development.
  39. What is the Psychodynamic Theory
    • Psychodynamic psychotherapy is concerned with how internal processes such
    • as needs, drives, and emotions motivate human behavior.

     Emotions have a central place in human behavior.

    •  Unconscious, as well as conscious mental activity serves as the motivating
    • force in human behavior.

    •  Early childhood experiences are central in the patterning of an individual’s
    • emotions, and therefore, central to problems of living throughout life.

     Individuals may become overwhelmed by internal and/or external demands.

    •  Individuals frequently use ego defense mechanisms to avoid becoming
    • overwhelmed by internal and/or external demands.

    • Note: In current social work practice psychodynamic theory is what the social worker uses when s/he looks at early attachment relationships and the developmental history of the client which includes past trauma or abuse. In addition, social workers use this theory in supervision to understand the dynamics of the helping relationship (transference,
    • countertransference)
  40. What is the Social Learning
    Social learning theory suggests that human behavior is learned as individuals interact with their environment.

    Problem behavior is maintained by positive or negative reinforcement.

    Cognitive- behavioral therapy looks at what role thoughts play in maintaining the problem. Emphasis is on changing dysfunctional thoughts which influence behavior.

    Methods which stem from this theory are the gradual shaping of new behavior through positive and negative reinforcement, modeling, stress management: biofeedback, relaxation techniques, cognitive restructuring, imagery and systematic desensitization.
  41. What is Conflict Theory
    This theory draws attention to conflict, dominance, and oppression in social life.

    Groups and individuals try to advance their own interests over the interests of others.

    Power is unequally divided, and some social groups dominate others.

    Social order is based on the manipulation and control of nondominant groups by dominant groups.

    Lack of open conflict is a sign of exploitation.

    Social change is driven by conflict, with periods of change interrupting long periods of stability.

    Note: Social workers use this theory to understand clients who are experiencing oppression in some form or another in our capitalist society.
  42. Primary Perspectives
    • Strengths – Stems from the work of Saleeby (1996) – The social worker assumes
    • that the client has multiple strengths. The social worker tries to assess the strengths of the client and emphasizes these strengths in the helping relationship.

    • Feminist – This perspective takes into account the role of gender and the
    • historical lack of power experienced by women in our society. Feminist social
    • workers emphasize the collaborative relationship between the social worker and
    • the client and place an emphasis on equality and empowerment of women in our
    • society
  43. What is the System Theory Approach in regards to Human Behavior
    1. Individuals have the potential for growth and adaption throughout life. They are active, problem solving and purposeful

    2. Individuals can be understood as open systems which interact with other living and non-living systems

    3. All systems are interdependent. Change in one system brings about change in another system.
  44. Entropy
    Random, chaotic, disorder in a system
  45. Homeostasis
    A system will make changes in order to maintain an accustomed balance.
  46. What are the major Family Therapy Approaches?
    • 1. Object Relation (Framo and Scharff)
    • 2. Experimental (Satir and Whitaker)
    • 3. Transgenerational (Bowen)
    • 4. Structual (Minuchin)
    • 5. Strategic (Haley)
    • 6. Cognative Behavioral (Beck and Ellis)
    • 7. Social Constructionist (deShazer and Anderson)
    • 8. Narrative (Michael White)
  47. What are the Dysfunctional Roles of a Family?
    1. Hero - Compulsive high achiever that can be controlling and judgemental; appear to be well-adjusted

    2. Mascot - Joker that distracts the family from the burden of its dysfunction. Expresses the effects of the family's painful experiences as humor.

    3. Scapegoat - The family may feel ashamed of this person and they are usually blamed for everything. They usually demonstrates defiance and irresponsibility; unconsciously 

    4. Lost Child - Shy, withdrawn, and require very little attention so family does not worry about them; often copes through avoidance; feeling of being unloved and unworthy of love.

    5. Enabler - A family member that allows the addict to continue their addiction, ignoring the problem,denial,etc.
  48. What are the 9 concepts of the Family Systems Theory
    • 1. Wholeness
    • 2. Change and Interaction
    • 3. Hiearchy of Subsystems
    • 4. Change related to the size of the subsystems
    • 5. Boundaries of the System
    • 6. Rules
    • 7. Control and Feedback
    • 8. Level of Control
    • 9. Cause and Effect Relationships
  49. What is Wholeness as it relates to the Family System Theory
    The parts of a system can not function independently and nor cannot be broken up into parts. 

    Human behavior and role of a family member cannot be understood unless it is understood in the context of the social system of their family
  50. What is Change and Interaction in regards to the Family System Theory
    Change in one part of a system causes a change in another part of a system.
  51. What is the Hiearchy of Subsystems as it relates to the Family System Theory?
    A system is made up of subsystems of subsystems. Eg. - siblings are subsytems of the nuclear family which is a subsytem of the extended family.
  52. What is Change related to the size of the subsystems?
    The size of the system affects the rate of change in a system. The larger the system the longer it will take to change.
  53. What are Boundaries of the System as it relates to the Family System Theory?
    A family has internal boundaries that define how family members relate to each other.
  54. What are Rules as it relates to the Fmaily System Theory?
    A family has a set of rules that are covert and overt which helps the family system function.
  55. What is Control and Feedback as it relates to the Family System Theory?
    Two types of Feedbacl; negative and positive.

    Negative feedback helps control the family system when it deviates from the norm.

    Postive feedback help facilitate change.
  56. What is Level of Control as it relates to Family System Theory?
    Family system have levels in which (spoken or unspoken) rules are enforced or acknowledged.
  57. What is the Cause and Effect Relationship as it relates to Family System Theory?
    Change in a subsystem can have an effect on the entire system.
  58. What are the 3 components of an Educational Group
    • 1. Be Treatment based
    • 2. Provide information and skill
    • 3. Promote Learning throug social interaction
  59. What are the 4 Dimensions to Group Dynamics
    • 1. Communications and interaction patterns
    • 2. Cohesion
    • 3. Social intergration and influence
    • 4. Group Culture
  60. What are the 4 components of an effective Leader
    • 1. Develop Trust and Competence
    • 2. Inspire and Motivate
    • 3. Validate members and their opinions
    • 4. Sensitive to Group's diversity
  61. What is the psychodynamic Theory
    Interactions that occur in the group reflect personality structures and defense mechanisms that members develop early in life.
  62. What is the Social Exchange Theory
    Observation of how members seek recognition while coping and maintaining social intercations in the group
  63. What is the Narrative and Construction Theory
    Focuses on how group members maintain their realities through life stories and subjective experiences.
  64. What is Object Relation Theory
    1. Object Relations Theory is a Psychodynamic Theory within Psychoanalytical Psychology. 

    2. The infant's experience in relation with the mother or caregiver is the primary determining factor of personality formation. 

    3. The bond or lack thereof of formed between an infant and their caregiver can have a lasting effect throughtout their childhood and adulthood.
  65. What is the Social Learning Theory
    A Theory that suggest that children learn behavior through observation and immitation. 

    Children are either awarded or punished based on the behavoir they mimic.
  66. What is scheduled Reinforcements?
    1. Behavior is a result of experience.

    2. Behavior can be changed by using reinforcements. 

    3. Reinforcement should not be only enjoyable but it should also increase over time.
  67. What is Operant Conditioning
    Operant Conditioning is a type of learning in which a behavior is strengthened (meaning, it will occur more frequently) when it's followed by reinforcement, and behavior is weakened (will happen less frequently) when followed by punishment.
  68. What are the 4 types of schedules of Reinforcement
    1. Fixed Ratio - eg.- after a student gets 3 answers correctly, they get a compliment from the teacher.

    2. Fixed Interval - Reinforcement is given after a specific amount of time

    3. Variable Ratio - Reinforcement is given after a changing number of answers

    4. Variable Interval - Reinforcement is given after a changing amout of time.
  69. What are the components of the Ecologcial Theory
    1. Commitment to the broader social, economical or political agenda.

    2. Addresses poverty and injustice on a local and global scale.

    3. Commitment to "Service to others" is strong.
  70. What is the "Person in Environment"
    1. It intergrates, micro, mezzo and macro level practices. 

    2. Social work is embedded in the community.

    3. Focuses on the dual role of individual and family as it relates to local and global political, economical and social structure.

    4. Problems are assessed as a process that crosses cultures over time.
  71. What are the 5 most prescribed Benzodiazepines and there generic names?
    • 1. Xanax - Alprazolam
    • 2. Ativan - Lorezapam
    • 3. Klonopin - Clonazepam
    • 4. Valium - Diazepam
    • 5. Restoril - Temazepam
  72. What are the "Stages of Change"
    1. Precontemplation - No intention of changing behavior

    2. Contemplation - Aware a problem exsist. No commitment to action.

    3. Preparation - intent on taking action

    4. Action - Taking action to modify behavior

    5. Maintenance - Focus on sustaing new behavior and replacing old behavior

    6. Relapse - Falls back to old patterns of behavior.
  73. What are the 5 stages of Addiction?
    • 1. Emotional Trigger
    • 2. Craving
    • 3. Ritual
    • 4. Using 
    • 5. Guilt
  74. What is the focus of the Pcyhodynamic Theory?
    1. How inner energies and external forces impact emotional development.
  75. What are the main concepts of the Psychodynamic Theory?
    1. Unconscious and consciously motivate behavior

    2. Ego functions mediate between person and environment.

    3. Ego defenses protect person and environment.

    4. Internalized experience shape personality

    5. Healing occur through attention to transference and treatment relationship.
  76. What are the different stages of the Defense Mechanism?
    1. Compensation - Covering up a weakness by overemphasizing a strength.

    Eg. - An academically weak high school student becomes a star in a school play. 

    2. Conversion - Converting anxiety or internal conflict into a physical symptom.

    Eg. - The student wakes up with a migrane headache the day of an exam they are not prepared for. 

    3. Rationalization - Using excuses to explain away threatening circumstances.

    Eg. - I did poorly on the test because the questions are tricky.

    4. Reaction Formation - Behaving in a manner or expressing a feeling that is opposite of one's true feelings.

    Eg. - A parent who is resentful of an unplanned child becomes overprotective of that child. 

    5. Introjection - Taking on the qualities or attitudes of others without thought or examination.

    Eg. - A person may take on the political views of a famous admired actor.

    6. Intellectualization - Using only logical explanations without feelings or affective expression.

    Eg. - A wife explains to her husband abour a dented car fender without showing any guilt or remorse. 

    7. Displacement - Transfering thoughts or feelings towards one person or object onto another person or object.

    Eg. - A person who is angry at his boss comes homes and yells at their spouse.

    8. Regression - Returning to a previous level of development. 

    Eg. - An adult has a "temper tantrum" when stuck in traffic.

    9. Repression - Keeping unacceptable thoughts or traumatic events burried in the unconscious.

    Eg. - A person who was raped cannot recall the event. 

    7. Sublimation - Transforming unacceptable thoughts or needs into acceptable actions.

    Eg. - A person may turn to boxing to deal with aggression.

    10. Suppression - consciously or voluntarily excluding oneself from from anxiety-producing feelings ideas or situations.

    Eg. - A person consciously avoids thinking about their upcoming wedding by focusing on other things.
  77. What are the Characteristics of Abnormal Behavior?
    1. Change in person's thinking, memory, perception and judgement.

    2. Reduced Work efficiency.

    3. Forgetfullness

    4. Unhappiness

    5. Unable to Cope

    6. No respect for oneself or others

    7. Worriness and unable to fullfill daily living activies

    8. Lack of Self Confidence and gratification.
  78. What are the Characterisitics of Normal Behavior?
    • 1. Perception of reality
    • 2. Postive mental attitude
    • 3. Adquate in work, play and pleasure.
    • 4. Capacity to adapt
    • 5. Capacity for withstanding anxiety and stress.
    • 6. Willingness to use problem solving techniques.
  79. What are the social ques and behavior to look for in an infant that is 2 months old?
    1. Start to smile and looks directly at you.

    2. Cry to get needs met.

    3. Self-soothe by sucking on hands and fingers.
  80. What are the social ques and behavior to look for in an infant that is 4 months old?
    1. Smiles and plays spontaneously

    2. Cry when you stop playing

    3. Immitates the faces you make.
  81. What are the social ques and behaviors to look for in an infant that is 6 months old?
    1. Showing interest in their surroundings.

    2. Following objects with their eyes

    3. Turning their heads towards sound

    4. Reaching to touch objects

    5. Standing
  82. What are the social ques and behaviors to look for in an infant that is 6 to 12 months old?
    1. Looking for objects that are out of sight

    2. Feed themselves with a bottle

    3. Crawling

    4. Walking while holding the hand of an adult.

    5. Crave attention, affection and attachment.
  83. What are the social ques and behaviors to look for in an infant that is between 1 and 2 years old old?
    1. Gross motor skills - playing, running

    2. Throw and retrieve objects

    3. Make marks with crayons or pencils
  84. What are the names of the 2 types of Crisis?
    1. Maturational Crisis

    2. Situational Crisis.
  85. What is A Maturational Crisis?
    A crisis that builds over normal stresses of development.
  86. What is a Situational Crisis?
    A crisis that occurs due to a sudden tragic event.
Card Set
Theories & Modules 1A
Erikson's Psychosocial Stages