Anatomy Lecture Exam I

  1. Anatomy
    the study of structure of the body
  2. Four ways to study Anatomy
    Inspection (physical exam) , Dissection (cadaver vs. comparative anatomy), Gross Anatomy (naked eye), Microscopic Anatomy (microscope)
  3. Palpation
  4. auscultation
  5. percussion
  6. Physiology
    the study of the function of the body
  7. Organism
    individual living thing
  8. Organ System
    group of organs that work together for a specific task
  9. Organ
    group of two or more tissue types with a specific function
  10. Tissue
    a group of similar cells that form a region of an organ & have similar structure and function
  11. Cell
    smallest unit of a living organism that can carry out the basic functions of life
  12. Organelle
    differentiated structure within a cell
  13. Molecule
    particle made up of at least two atoms
  14. Atom
    smallest particle matter with an unique chemical identity
  15. Homeostasis
    maintaining a constant internal environment or equilibrium
  16. stress
    any disruption of homeostasis that threatens physical or emotional well-being
  17. Negative Feedback
    process where the body senses a change and activates mechanism to negate or reverse it
  18. components of negative feedback
    receptor or sensor(senses the change), integrating or control center (process the information from the receptor and make a "decision" on how to respond), effector (cell or organ that carries out the corrective action)
  19. Positive feedback
    a self-amplifying cycle in which a physiological change leads to even more change in the same direction
  20. Integumentary System
    skin, hair, nails. Function: protection, thermo regulation, vitamin D
  21. Skeletal System
    bones, cartilage, ligaments. Function: support, protection, movement, blood cell formation
  22. Muscular System
    skeletal muscles. Function: movement, stability
  23. Nervous System
    nerves, brain, spinal cord, ganglia. Function: communication, coordination, motor control, sensation.
  24. Endocrine System
    pituitary, pineal, thyroid, parathyroid, thymus, adrenals, pancreas, testes, ovaries. Function: hormones
  25. Cardiovascular System
    heart, blood vessels. Function: distribute nutrients, oxygen, hormones, waste, etc. Fluid balance.
  26. Lymphatic System
    lymph nodes, lymph vessels, thymus, spleen, tonsils. Function: defend against disease and recovery of excess tissue fluid.
  27. Respiratory System
    nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs. Function: absorb oxygen, discharge CO2, acid-base balance, speech.
  28. Digestive System
    mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, SI, LI, liver, gallbladder, pancreas. Function: nutrient breakdown and absorption.
  29. Urinary System
    kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra. Function: elimination of waste, regular blood pressure and blood volume, stimulate red blood cell (RBC) production, electrolyte and acid-base balance
  30. Female Reproductive System
    ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, mammary glands. Function: egg production, fetal development, make sex hormones, lactation.
  31. Male Reproductive System
    testes, vas deferens, prostate, penis. Function: sperm production, makes sex hormones.
  32. Hypothetico-deductive method:
    • Four Steps:
    • 1. observation.
    • 2. hypothesize
    • 3. experiment
    • 4. conclusions & reporting
  33. Inductive Method:
    make numerous observation to draw generalizations and predictions. raises issue of proof
  34. Considerations in experiments
    Variable (any condition of an experiment), Experimental Group (group that contains the tested variable), Control Group (group that does not contain the tested variable)
  35. Matter
    anything that has mass and takes up space. All organisms are made of matter.
  36. Element
    a substance that cannot be changed into another substance. Ex. Hydrogen, Oxygen.
  37. Atom
    the smallest particle of an element that retains the characteristics of the element.
  38. Neutron
    neutral charge. (in nucleus)
  39. Electrons
    negative charge (orbit around nucleus)
  40. Proton
    positive charge (in nucleus)
  41. Atomic number
    number of proton
  42. Atomic mass
    protons + neutrons
  43. Isotope
    atoms of an element with different numbers of neutrons
  44. Molecule
    particle made of 2 or more atoms united by a chemical bond.
  45. diatomic molecule
    molecule consist of 2 of the same type of atom bonded together
  46. compound
    molecule consist of 2 or more different elements
  47. Ions
    charged atoms with unequal numbers of protons and electrons. They give up or gain an electron to try to become more stable.
  48. Cation
    positively charged ion. gave up an electron
  49. Anion
    negatively charged ion. gained an electron
  50. Electrolytes
    salts that ionize in water and form solutions capable of conducting electricity.

    = ions
  51. Free radical
    a chemical particle carrying an odd number of electrons.

  52. Antioxidant
    a chemical that neutralized free radicals

  53. Ionic bonds
    two ions are attracted to each other and bond because of an opposite charge. weak.
  54. covalent bonds
    two atoms share electrons. [strongest bond]
  55. Non-polar covalent bond
    evenly distributing charge
  56. Polar covalent bond
    water. have slight opposite charges on either end
  57. Hydrogen bonds
    water molecules. the - side of the molecule (oxygen) is attracted to the + side of another molecule [hydrogen]. Not stuck together, just stay close. weakest
  58. Acid
    a compound that releases hydrogen ions in solution
  59. Base
    a compound that accept hydrogen ions
  60. Salt
    an ionic compound that does NOT contain H+ or OH- and comes from an acid-base reaction
  61. pH
    the measurement of the H+ concentration in a solution. Expression of acidity
  62. pH=7
    neutral pH
  63. pH<7
    acidic pH
  64. pH>7
    Basic or Alkaline pH
  65. low pH
    higher H
  66. Normal blood & tissue pH
    7.35- 7.45
  67. Buffer
    any mechanism that resists large changes in pH. maintain homeostasis for pH.
  68. Chemical buffers
    take up or give off H+ ions
  69. Physiological buffers
    control output of acids, bases, or CO2.
  70. 3 Chemical Buffers
    • 1. Bicarbonate: Shift to the right, equals more Hydrogen in body which makes pH lower. Shift to left decreases Hydrogen ions, which increases pH.
    • 2. Phosphate:
    • Proteins:
  71. 2 Physiological Buffers
    • 1. Respiratory system: 2-3 times stronger than chemical buffers. breath CO2. ventilation less or more adds or decreases CO2.
    • 2. Urinary System: Because it actually expels H+ from the body, the urinary system is the strongest buffering system in our body.
  72. adhesion
    tendency of one substance to cling to another
  73. cohesion
    the tendency of molecules of the same substance to cling to each other
  74. capillary action
    the movement of liquid along the surface of a solid due to the attraction of the liquid molecules to the solid molecules
  75. surface tension
    manifestation of cohesion of water at the surface
  76. high specific heat
    the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance by 1 degree C
  77. High heat of vaporization
    amount of heat it takes to convert liquid to vapor
  78. Water
    Covalently bonded, polar molecule.
  79. Solvency
    ability to dissolve other chemicals.
  80. Chemical reactivity
    ability to participate in chemical reactions.
  81. Organic chemistry
    the study of carbon compounds
  82. Four types of organic molecules:
    Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, Nucleic Acid.
  83. monomer or subunit of carbohydrated
    monosaccharides (aka simple sugars) ex. glucose, fructose

    Functions: source of energy and in structure
  84. Lipids:
    fatty acids and alcohols.

    Functions: energy storage. thermal insulation. cushion. cell membrane structure. chemical signals between cells
  85. Proteins. Monomer:
    amino acids.

    • functions:
    • structure: Keratin (hair, skin, nails). Collagen (cartilage, deep layers of skin)
    • communication: hormones
    • Membrane transport
    • Metabolism: enzymes
    • Protection: antibodies, clotting proteins
  86. Nucleic Acids:monomer:
    • nucleotides
    • example: DNA, RNA

    functions: heredity, protein synthesis
  87. ATP
    Adenosine Triphosphate. a nucleotide. The fuel of living cells.
  88. Dehydration Synthesis
    assembling organic molecules by extracting water. aka condensation.
  89. Hydrolysis
    breaking up organic molecules using water.
  90. Proteins that function as biological catalysts
    lower the activation energy [energy needed to start a reaction], speeding up chemical processes
  91. Enzymes are:
    • ubstrate {substance the enzymes act on} specific
    • not consumed by the reaction they catalyze
    • affected by pH and temperature outside of the ideal range which change their shape. must be in perfect condition to work
  92. pH and temperature outside of the ideal range can change the shape of an enzyme (disrupts hydrogen bonds) [[ enzymes must be in perfect shape and condition to work]]
Card Set
Anatomy Lecture Exam I
Anatomy Lecture Exam over Unit 1 and 2