- Get to know your scope of practice as a radiographer, never operate beyond. i.e., do not interpret the x-rays even if there is an obvious fracture on the x-ray. Only the radiologist, or a trained physician.
- A calling that requires specialized knowledge and intensive academic preparation.
2 Organizations for Radiology Technology
- Professional Organizations: American Society of Radiologic Technologists (ASRT).
- Certification Board: American Registry of Radiologic Technologist (ARRT)
The term "profession" implies a body of work that requires extensive training and the mastery of study by its members who have specialized skills, has a professional organization and ethical code of conduct, and serves a specific social need.
Standards of Profession
- Life-long learning
Practice Standards and Professional Growth in Radiograhy
- The practice Standards for Medical Imaging and Radiation Therapy is a guideline for the appropriate practice of medical imaging.
- These standards are used to define the practice and establish general criteria to determine compliance.
- Judge and evaluate quality of practice, service and education.
Joint Review Committee on Education in Radiologic Technology:
- Programmatic accreditation agency which assures that the program will provide the knowledge and skills for quality patient care.
- The initial accreditation process for a program takes 18 to 21 months.
- Formal education programs include the didactic and clinical competency requirements.
- Two-year certificate, associate degree and four-year baccalaureate degree programs are available.
Continuing Education for Radiographers
- Became mandated in 1995 for those possessing an ARRT license.
- Requires 24 education units.
- Earned every 2 years.
- Achieved through seminars, conferences, lectures, departmental in-service education, directed reading, home study and college courses.
ASRT - Practice Standards - 2010
- Radiographer General Requirements
- Education and Certification
- Scope of Practice
- Clinical Performance Standards
- Quality Performance Standards
- Professional Performance Standards
The Health Care Team
- Physicians: A doctor of medicine or osteopathy. They often specialize in a specific area of practice and, following licensing, are able to prescribe and supervise the medical care of the patient.
- Registered Nurse: Provide patient care, which is often required 24 hours a day.
- Vocational Nurse: Work with patients under the supervision of a registered nurse.
- Occupational and physical therapists: Members of a profession who work in the rehabilitative area of health care.
- Pharmacist: Prepares and dispenses medications and oversees that patient's drug therapy.
- Laboratory technologists: Analyze laboratory specimens for pathological conditions.
- Social Workers: Counsel patients and refer them for assistance to appropriate agencies.
The Health Care Team
- Occupational Therapists and Physical Therapists
- Respiratory Therapist
- Laboratory Technologists
- Radiologic Technologists
- Ethics: is defined as a part of set of moral priniciples that govern one's course of action.
- Moral: principles are a set of standards that establish what is right or wrong.
- All individuals have a personal code of ethics that evolves base on their cultural and environmental background.
Ethics - A Combination of Attributes
- A branch of ethics that was established because of the advanced technical methods or prolonging life.
- Moral issues dealing with human life and death.
- Double effect
- Sanctity of life
- Respect for property
Agreement to respect patient's right to self-determine a course of action.
Taking positive action to help others; desire to do good.
Concept of privacy.
Some actions may produce both a good and bad effect. Four criteria.
Keeping promises both stated and implied.
All person treated equally/receiving equal benefits.
Avoidance of harm.
Attitude that prompts decision making without consulting the person affected.
Sanctity of life
Belief that life is the highest good.
Honesty in all aspect of life.
Respect for property
Keeping patient's belonging safe.
Ethical Issues in Radiography
- Expected to conduct yourself in a professional manner.
- Work as a cooperative member of the health care team.
- Treat patients with dignity and worth.
Legal issues in Radiography
Law: all rules of conduct established and enforced by the authority, legislation, or custom of a given community or group. Acceptable professional rules of conduct and minimum practice standards are established by ARRT and ASRT.
Never assume the role of other medical personal. It is NOT within your scope of practice to read and diagnose radiographs and impart the results to the patient or family members.
Stadard of Ethics is made up of two parts"
Standard of Ethics is made up of two parts:
- Code of Ethics: Simply put, Ethics may be defined as a set of moral principles that govern one's own course of action. Ensures that you ensure patient's safety. Don't ever try to perform a diagnostic procedure for which you have no education. Talk to your supervisor about your concern.
- Rules of Ethics: They are mandatory and directive specific of minimally acceptable professional conduct for all RT's and candidates
- Provide accurate health history.
- Keeping appointments.
- Refusing treatment.
- Financial obligations.
- Following hospital rules and regulations.
- Being considerate of the rights and property of others.
There are two types of torts
- Defaming a colleague's character or committing assault or battery is an example of an intentional tort.
- Assault and Batter are often linked together.
- Assault can be charged if without any physical contact if the pt fears that it will occur.
- Batter is unwanted touching.
- Unintentionally causing harm to a patient regardless of how severe the injury, i.e. a radiographer fails to check a pt's ID band and contrast is administered to the wrong patient. The patient has severe anaphylactic reaction as a result of the mistake and sues the radiographer.
- Always remember to make sure that you are marking the correct side. Many times x-rays are used in connection to surgical procedures. Marking patients incorrectly can result in the pt having wrong side operated on and viable tissue removed.
- Least restrictive to the patient's movements and freedom.
- Unauthorized use of immobilization techniques can be constructed as false imprisonment.
- Only when you have exhausted all other safe methods of obtaining an image should you consider immobilizing the patient.
- If patients are medicated as restraining technique special care must be made to insure that pt remains safe.
Incident or Unusual Occurrence Reports
Incidents that require reporting: Injury to pt, med admin error, performing the wrong procedure, a pt falling, or any error in treatment or significant change in pt status must be documented in an incident report. Never chart that an incident report was created in a pt's chart.
Good Samaritan Laws
Help protect the public while rendering aid during an emergency.
- Pt understands what is happening.
- Simple consent
- Express consent
- Implied consent
- Inadequate consent
What is the first question we must ask all female pt's?
When was their Last Menstrual Period (LMP)
Radiograph images must include the following
- Patient's name
- Identification number
- Name of the facility
- Correct placement of the Right or Left marker
If an error is made when documenting in Pt's chart
Draw a single line through the error, initial it, and indicate that it was an error.
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996. Information concerning a patient's condition or prognosis, must always remain confidential. That means no talking a pt in the elevator or in the hospital cafeteria. If the pt has family bedside, and you solicit information, ask if it is alright to speak in from pt's family.
Covers people 65 years or older, permanently disabled workers and dependents, and people with End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD)
Federally funded and state administered programs that provided medical care for families with dependent older adults, children or disabled people with qualifying income and eligibility requirements.
Is a regulatory body that was established to demand evidence that high quality care if provided by health care workers.
Uninterrupted; continuin on an enduring line.
Basic Human Needs
- Physiological needs
- Safety and Security
- Love and belonging
- Self-esteem and esteem of others
- Self actualization
It is the status of an organism functioning without any evidence of disease or disfigurement.
In its various forms affects a person's ability to maintain his or her health status at a high level. There is good stress: a new baby, getting married. Bad stress: money problems, traffic, unreasonable boss.
Was a distinguish psychologist who thought that people had a hierarchy of needs, eac was built upon the other starting from the bottom to the top. The bottom is the basic physiologic needs to survive, and the top is self-actualization is the end result of growth of the human spirit. Those who are at a state of mental and physical health at the most positive end of the health-illness continuum and have their basic needs met wit no stressful events affecting their well-being.
The ability of radiographer to achieve a positive diagnostic or treatment result in timely, efficient manner while meeting the unique needs of the individual patient:
- Cognition: Students learn in the classroom. They are cognitively conditioned to the profession of imaging technology (priniciples, insights, and concepts of the profession).
- Effect: Outcome of learning experience cultures the student with the ability to critically think by adapting the material that has been learned.
- Didactic: Instructional phase of learning, classroom instruction.
- Physchomotor: Physical movement triggered by mental activity.
What does critical thinking require?
- Interpret: To explain or to make understandable.
- Analyze: Scrutinize.
- Evaluate: To make a judgement as to the value of something.
- Infer: To arrive at a conclusion base upon evidence gathered.
- Explain: To render understandable.
- Reflect: To think carefully and consider at length.
What are the mode of thinking?
- Recall: Knowledge of scientific facts that you can recall at moment's notice while with patient's.
- Habit: You will develop habits that make for the efficient practice of learned skills.
- Inquiry: Using the skills of recall and habit along with higher mode of thinking.
- Creativity: It is used to solve individual problems and to prevent causing the patient discomfort or pain.
What is the first step in problem solving:
Data collection. Involves talking to the patient or family and making observations of the patient.
What are the two types of data collection?
- Subjective: Personal feelings about pain/condition, i.e., "If I lie flat, I cannot breath."
- Objective: Base on what the health care worker sees, hears, smells, feels, reads, by measurement, i.e., talking pt's V/S, weighing the pt, measuring their height.
What is data analysis?
Integration of all segments of critical thinking. The radiographer lists all subjective and objective data and then analyzed them.
What is planning, implementation, and theoretical concepts?
Planning and implementation: Using the information to set a goal, plan is written to achieve the goal. Planning requires theoretical concepts learned from the classroom and practical experience. Implementation of the plan depends on the patient's problems and the need for assistance to achieve the desired goal safely. For example, how many people will need to gently move a patient from the gurney to the x-ray table?
Assessment of the student's performance based on quality performance standards. The student also evaluates his or her performance based on what improvements should be made.
What are the three main racial classifications?
Caucasian, Negroid, and Mongoloid.