Instrument check ride

  1. Wx mins to file to a field?
    • Destination weather at or above lowest compatible
    • published minimum +- 1 hour of ETA
  2. WX Mins: is alternate required?
    • - when the worst WX at the ETA (+1hour) is less than 3,000ft/3SM, or 2SM above lowest published landing min's, whichever is greater.
    • - when filing to a destination where all approaches:
    • 1. require radar
    • 2. GPS is only NAVAID
    • 3. NAVAIDS are unmonitored
    • 4. Destination has no WX reporting capability
    • 5. Forecast winds exceed A/C limits witing +- 1 hr
  3. WX mins: Does the alternate qualify?
    • ceiling of at least 1000 ft. or 500 ft. above the lowest compatible published landing minimum, whichever is higher
    • visibility of 2 SM’s or 1SM above the lowest compatible published landing minimum, whichever is higher
  4. WX mins to begin an Approach?
    do not begin an enroute descent or published approach if WX required for the approach is below the required minimums
  5. Wx Mins for T/O?
    will not T/O when WX is lower than published landing minimums, or less than 600 RVR
  6. FORM 70/Flight Plan/Fuel Reserve/Vis Only
    • a. Form 70 is the pilots flight plan and flight log
    • b. Fuel Reserve: A/C must have enough usable fuel aboard to complete the flight to a final landing , either at the destination airport or alternate airport plus the fuel reserves. The PIC must ensure the AC is carrying enough usable fuel on each flight to increase the total planned flight time between refueling points by 10% or 20 mins, whichever is greater.
    • c. PIC will obtain sufficient weathr information to safely conduct the flight and comply w/ 11-202 V3
    a. VFR Cloud clearances and visibility requirements
    • i. Class B: 3SM, Clear of Clouds
    • ii. Class C and D: 3SM, 1000 Above, 500 Below, 2000 Horiz
    • iii. Class E and G (below 10G): 3SM, 1000 Above, 500 Below, 2000 Horiz
    • iv. Class E and G (at or above 10G): 5SM, 1000 above, below, 1SM Horiz

    The forecast weather for the planned route of flight conducted under VFR must be equal to or greater than 1500 ft ceiling and 3 SM’s visibility and must be valid for +- 1 hour of the ETA.
  8. VFR PROCEDURES: options if VFR cannot be maintained?
    PIC will alter the route of flight so as to continue operations under VFR to the destination, until obtaining IFR clearance, or to land at a suitable location
  9. When to file IFR?
    • -if Wx conditions do not permit flight according to VFR
    • - operating in class A airspace
    • - operating a fixed wing A/C w/in federal airways
    • - fixed wing a/c at night unless missions cannot be conducted IFR
  10. GPS rules
    • - Approaches must be retrieved from a valid navigation database and shall not be manually entered
    • - Approaches will not be flown with an expired database
    • - GPS NOTAMS must be checked prior to a GPS DP or IAP. Satellites that will become unavailable during flight should be manually deselected to ensure accurate predictive RAIM
    • - When flying a GPS DP or IAP, must check predictive RAIM and ensure RAIM available prior to commencing procedure
    • - If RAIM failure occurs or GPS does not sequence from armed to activate prior to the FAF, procedure cannot be flown and contact ATC for alternate clearance
    • - If RAIM loss occurs after FAF, climb to missed approach altitude and proceed to missed approach point and execute a missed approach
    • - T-6 not certified for VNAV, use LNAV MDA on all GPS approaches
  11. GPS Overlay procedures
    • - The traditional navaids serving the underlying approach must be serviceable, tuned, identified, and displayed to the pilot while flying the overlay approach, even if using GPS guidance. This may be accomplished by the pilot not flying in a two pilot aircraft
    • - It the pilot/crew detect any deviation from the published underlying procedure that exceeds normal tolerances, the crew will disregard GPS guidance and transition to the conventional underlying approach
    • - Single pilot aircraft may only conduct overlay approaches in day, VMC conditions
  12. GPS: Primary navigational source
    - Single pilot aircraft may only conduct overlay approaches in day, VMC conditions, Lead and user MAJCOMs may provide operational approval for GPS navigation equipment as a primary means of navigation in remote/oceanic areas only if the system meets the requirements and specifications of FAA Notice 8110.60
  13. Control and Performance concept
    • - Establish: attitude or power setting on control instruments
    • - Torque to maintain or adjust airspeed
    • - Pitch to maintain or adjust altitude
    • - Bank to maintain or adjust heading
    • - Trim: until control pressures neutralized
    • - Crosscheck: performance instruments to verify the established attitude or power setting is providing the desired performance
    • - Adjust: attitude or power setting on control instruments as necessary
  14. TIMing a station
    • -Tune desired frequency in the RMU
    • -Identify via morse code or recorded voice identification
    • -Monitor to ensure a reliable signal is being received (Nav signal must be considered unreliable when the station identifier is not being received
  15. Inbound course Intercept
    • Inbound Course Intercept:
    • - TIM the station
    • - Set inbound course and check for TO indication
    • - Turn to an intercept heading
    • - Turn in the shorter direction toward the CDI
    • - Place the head of the course arrow in the top half of the case
    • - Displace the bearing pointer 30° from the upper lubber line (CB + 30)
    • - Maintain intercept (angle must be greater than the number of degrees off course not to exceed 90⁰)
  16. Outbound Course Intercept
    • - TIM the station
    • - Set outbound course
    • - Turn to an intercept heading
    • - Turn in the shorter direction toward the CDI
    • - Place the head of the course arrow in the top half of the case
    • - Displace the head of the course arrow 45° from the upper lubber line (TDC + 45)
    • - Maintain intercept (angle must be greater than the number of degrees off course not to exceed 90⁰)
  17. Completing an Intercept
    • - A lead point to roll out on the course must be determined by comparing bearing pointer or CDI movement with the time required to turn course
    • - Aircraft is considered to be maintaining course centerline when the CDI is centered or the bearing pointer points to the desired course (pilot’s should always attempt to fly as close to the course centerline as possible)
  18. Homing/Proceeding Direct
    • - Homing:
    • - Turn the aircraft in the shorter direction to place the head of the bearing pointer under the upper lubber line of the HSI
    • - Adjust heading as necessary to keep the bearing pointer under the upper lubber line
    • - Homing should only be used in the event maintaining course is not required

    • -Proceeding Direct:
    • - Turn in the aircraft in the shorter direction to place the head of the beaing pointer under the upper lubber line of the HSI
    • - Pull out course knob to center the CDI
  19. Fix to Fix
    • - TIM the station: (need bearing and range information)
    • - Set: the desired radial
    • - Turn: to a heading in the general direction of the desired fix (halfway between head of the bearing pointer and the radial on which the desired fix is located)
    • - double pinch method if going to a different DME
  20. Calculating Lead Points
    • - Lead points for course intercepts
    • - Determined by comparing bearing pointer or CDI movement with the time required to turn course
    • - Intercepting an arc from a radial
    • - 1% of groundspeed = NM to lead turn (assumes 30° of bank)
    • - Intercepting a radial from an arc
    • - Determine how many degrees equal one nautical mile on the arc using the 60 to 1 rule (i.e. 12 DME arc, 1NM=5°)
    • - Use the 1% groundspeed method to determine NMs to lead the turn and convert that to degrees
    • - Correcting back onto an arc
    • - 5° correction when inside the arc
    • -10° correction when outside the arc
    • - Vary the amount of correction according to the rate of deviation and adjust as necessary
  21. Enroute Descents
    • - Allows a pilot to transition from an en route altitude ro the final approach instead of flying an entire FLIP IAP
    • - ATC will not insist on an en route descent nor will they authorize one if abnormal delays are anticipated. They will not terminate the service without the pilot’s consent except in an emergency
    • - Descend at an optimum rate to 1,000 feet above the assigned altitude, then attempt to descent at a rate of between 500 and 1,500 fpm until the assigned altitude is reached.
    • - If at any time you are unable to descend at a rate of at least 500fpm, advise ATC.
    • - Advise ATC if it is necessary to level off at an intermediate altitude during descent (exception: leveling off at 10,000 MSL on descent, or 2,500’ above airport elevation prior to entering class B, C, or D for speed reduction)
    • - Descent gradients in excess of 10° in IMC may induce spatial disorientation
    • - Before starting descent, review the IAP for the type of final planned, recheck the weather (if appropriate), check the heading and attitude systems, and coordinate lost communication procedures (if required)
    • -During descent
    • - control descent rate and airspeed to comply with any altitude or range restrictions imposed by ATC
    • - reduce airspeed to 250 KIAS or less when below 10,000’ MSL
    • - when descending via radar vectors, remain oriented in relation to the final approach fix by using all available navaids
    • - Once cleared for the approach, maintain the last assigned altitude and heading until established on a segment of a published route or IAP. (do not climb above last assigned altitude to comply with published altitude restrictions unless instructed to do so.
    • - If advised that radar contact is lost while in IFR conditions and there is a delay in receiving new instructions, ask the controller for a new clearance or advise the controller of your intentions
  22. IFR DEPARTURES: basic rules
    • - Except for diverse departures, instrument departure procedures are preplanned IFR procedures that provide obstruction clearance from the terminal area to the appropriate enroute structure
    • - Basic rules:
    • - Delay all turns until at least 400’ above the departure end of the runway elevation unless an early turn is specifically required by the departure procedure
    • - Climb at a minimum of 200’ per nautical mile unless a higher gradient is published. Air Force aircraft must always meet or exceed the published climb gradient for the runway used with all engines operating
  23. IFR DEPARTURES: Diverse Departure
    • - Means the pilot may execute a turn in any direction from the runway and remain clear of obstacles (nothing penetrates the 40:1 OCS for a particular runway, 200 ft/nm will ensure obstacle clearance
    • - Track runway centerline until 400’ above the departure end elevation before executing any turns
    • - Maintain 200 ft/nm climb gradient until reaching a minimum IFR altitude
    • - NOTAMs or Flip books will state when a diverse departure is not authorized
    • - If you are cleared as file, there is no minimum published climb gradient for “Trouble T”, and ATC does not issue you further instructions you are expected to execute a diverse departure
  24. DPs, SIDs
    • - An ATC coded departure procedure that has been established at certain airports to simplify clearance delivery procedures
    • - Preplanned IFR departure procedures printed for pilot use in graphic and/or textual form
    • - In order to use a SID, the pilot must possess at least the textual description of the SID procedure
    • - ATC must be immediately advised if the pilot does not possess a charted SID or a preprinted SID description or, for any other reason, does not wish to use a SID
    • - Notify with “NO SID” in the remarks section
    • - Military SIDs typically have more information than civil SIDs, showing climb gradients and obstacles
    • - The climb gradient published on the SID itself takes precedence over the climb gradient contained in the IFR departure procedure
    • - When no climb gradient is specified on the SID, you must comply with the gradient published with the ODP for that runway
    • - If ATC wants you to fly a SID the name will included in your clearance (SID name, current number, and SID transition name)
    • - ATC may amend your clearance at any time, provided new altitudes, vectoring you around traffic, asking you to resume the procedure, etc. Just remember the last assigned ATC instructions takes precedence
  25. ATC Instructions
    • - Includes a heading to fly and an altitude
    • - Unless cleared otherwise by ATC (via SID or radar vector) you must fly the ODP established for the runway you select
    • - If the runway used has a minimum climb gradient published, you must meet or exceed the published climb gradient even when executing a radar departure
  26. Trouble T
    • - This is denoted by the T symbol in a black inverted triangle (referred to as the “Trouble T”)
    • - USAF aircraft will not use FAA takeoff weather minimums (11-202V3 minimums apply instead)
    • - USAF aircraft may only use non-standard weather minimums for takeoff in an engine out scenario where they can meet the non-standard ceiling requirement by the end of the runway and comply with published
    • - TERPS does not allow a climb gradient in excess of 500ft/nm without a waiver (up to 750 ft/nm)
    • - Non standard takeoff weather minimums may be used as a situational awareness tool but may not be used to calculate a required climb gradient
    • - USAF aircraft must always meet or exceed the published climb gradient with all engines operating for the runway used.
  27. "Radar Contact"
    • - “Radar Contact” means the controller sees your aircraft’s radar return on his scope and he has positively identified you
    • - It does not mean the controller now has responsibility for your terrain/obstacle clearance
    • -Terrain/obstacle clearance is not provided by ATC until the controller begins to provide navigational guidance in the form of radar vectors
    • - Ultimately, the pilot is responsible for keep the airplane away from the ground
  28. Holding
    • - Holding is maneuvering the aircraft in relation to a navigation fix while awaiting further clearance
    • - The standard holding pattern is defined by DME or 1 minute legs (1.5 min above 14,000’ MSL) using 180° right turns
    • - Unless otherwise instructed by ATC, pilots are expected to hold in a standard pattern
    • - Holding patterns have course guidance provided by a VOR, TACAN, NDB, localizer, or RNAV/GPS (holding over a TACAN or VORTAC facility is not permitted)
  29. How to enter holding/teardrop entries
    • - Although any technique may be used to enter holding, using the commonly accepted ones described below will keep you within holding airspace and insure your actions are predictable to the controller
    • - 70° Method:
    • - Direct Entry: within 70° of the inbound holding course on either side of your heading, turn outbound on the holding side to parallel the holding course. Upon completion of the outbound leg, proceed direct or intercept the holding course to the fix
    • - Parallel Entry: not within 70° of the inbound holding course, turn outbound in the shorter direction to parallel the holding course. Turn back toward the holding side and intercept the holding course
    • - Teardrop: may be used at pilot’s discretion when conveniently
    • - As a guide, consider yourself conveniently aligned when your heading is within 45° of the selected teardrop course
    • - Upon reaching the holding fix, turn on the holding side and proceed on an outbound track not to exceed 45° from the outbound course.
    • - If course guidance is available, attempt to intercept the selected teardrop course outbound
    • - AIM Method: (
    • - Enter the holding pattern based on your heading (±5°) relative to the three entry sectors
    • - Sector A (Parallel): Turn to a heading to parallel the holding course outbound for the appropriate time or distance, then turn towards the holding side and return to the holding fix or intercept the holding course inbound
    • - Sector B (Teardrop): Turn outbound to a heading for a 30° teardrop entry (on the holding side) for the appropriate time or distance, and then turn towards the holding course to intercept the inbound holding course
    • - Sector C (Direct): Turn to follow the holding pattern
  30. Holding Airspeed
    • - ATC should issue holding instructions at least 5 minutes before reaching a clearance limit fix
    • - When an aircraft is 3 minutes or less from a clearance limit and clearance beyond the fix has not been received, the pilot is expected to start a speed reduction so the aircraft will cross the fix at or below the maximum holding airspeed
    • - If holding instructions have not been received upon arrival at the fix, hold in accordance with procedures in FLIP
    • - Maximum holding speeds: Do not exceed
    • - MHA through 6000’ = 200 KIAS
    • - 6,000 through 14,000’ = 230 KIAS
    • - Above 14,000’ = 250 KIAS
    • - At USAF airfields, the maximum holding airspeed is 310 KIAS unless otherwise noted
    • - T-6 maximum holding speed 150 KIAS per Dash 1
  31. Holding Timing
    • - The maximum inbound leg time is 1 minute at or below 14,000’ MSL and 1.5 minutes above 14,000’ MSL
    • - On the initial outbound leg, do not exceed the appropriate time for the altitude unless compensating for a known wind
    • - Adjust subsequent outbound legs as necessary to meet the required inbound time
    • - When a specific DME or RNAV distance is specified, commence the inbound turn at the distance
    • - ATC expects pilots to fly the complete holding pattern as published, therefore do not shorten the holding pattern without ATC clearance
    • - Begin timing outbound timing when over or abeam the fix. If you cannot determine the abeam position, start timing when wings level outbound
    • - Begin inbound timing when wings level inbound
  32. Holding Bank Angles
    - Unless correcting for known winds, make all turns during entry and while holding at 3 degrees per second or 30° bank angle
  33. Drift Correction
    • - Mach: Divide the crosswind component by the mach time 10
    • - 50 knots crosswind and 300 KTAS (.5M) = 10° drift correction
    • - TAS: Divide the crosswind component by the aircraft speed in nautical miles per minutes
    • - 30 knots crosswind and 180 KTAS (3NM per minute) 30÷3 = 10° drift corrections
    • - Compensate for wind effect primarily by drift correction on the inbound and outbound legs. When outbound, triple the inbound drift correction.
  34. ILS/Localizer/Radar Approaches: Bearing Pointer/Glide Slope/Course Deviations
    • - Bearing pointer always points to the tuned station
    • - Once the aircraft is inside the final approach fix, one navigation receiver must remain tuned to and display the facility that provides final approach course guidance
    • - Do not descend below a descent restrictive altitude (minimum or mandatory) if the CDI indicates full scale deflection
    • - A full scale localizer CDI deflection indicates 1.5° to 3° off course (4 times more sensitive than VOR)
    • - Depending on the distance of the transmitter from the landing threshold, the localizer course width may vary from 3° to 6°
    • - Typical one dot deflection equals 800’ off course at the OM and 250’ off at the MM
    • - The localizer is normally aligned with the extended runway centerline however it may be offset up to 3°
    • - Do not descend below localizer minimums if the aircraft is more than one dot (half scale) below or two dots (full scale) above the glide slope. If the glide slope is recaptured to within those tolerances, descent may be continued to DH
    • - Disregard glide slope indications on back course localizer unless a glide slope is specifically published
  35. Usable Range
    • - The localizer signal typically has a usable range of at least 18 miles within 10° of the course centerline unless otherwise stated
    • - The glide slope signal is usable to a distance of 10NM from the glide slope antenna unless otherwise stated
    • - PAR starts when the aircraft is within range of the precision radar and contact is established with the final controller, normally 8 miles from touchdown
  36. Visual descent points/how to calculate one
    • - VDP: a defined point on the final approach course of a non-precision straight-in approach procedure from which a normal descent (approximately 3°) from the MDA to runway touchdown point may be commenced, provided visual reference with the runway environment is established
    • - Normally identified by DME and is computer for the non-precision approach with the lowest MDA on the IAP
    • - Not a mandatory part of the procedure but intended to provide additional guidance
    • - Use caution on an approach without a VDP as there may be an obstacle penetrating the 20:1 surface
    • - To calculate a VDP for a 3° glide slope:
    • - VDP = HAT ÷ 300
    • - Add the calculated VDP distance to the DME associated with the RWY threshold
    • - Descent out of the MDA
    • - Descent below MDA is not authorized until sufficient visual reference with the runway environment has been established and the aircraft is in a position to execute a safe landing
    • - Definition of the Runway Environment
    • - The approach light system (except that the pilot may not descend below 100 feet above the TDZE using the approach lights as a reference unless the red termination bars or the red side row bars are also visible and identifiable)
    • - Threshold, threshold markings, or threshold lights
    • - Runway end identifier lights
    • - Touchdown zone, touchdown zone markings, or touchdown zone lights
    • - Runway or runway markings
    • - Runway lights
    • - Visual approach slope indicator
  37. Comm during PAR/ASR approaches
    • - Repeat all headings, altitudes, (departing and assigned), and altimeter settings until the final controller advises “do not acknowledge further transmissions”
    • - Controller will directs heading and altitude changes as required to position the aircraft on final approach
    • - ASR:
    • - Controller will inform the pilot of the runway to which the approach will be made, the straight in MDA, and the MAP location, and will issue advance notice of where the descent to the MDA will begin
    • - For a circling approach, provide the controller with aircraft category and they will provide the circling MDA
    • - Controller will issue course guidance when required and will give range information each mile while on final approach and may instruct you to report runway in sight
    • - If you do not report the runway in sight missed approach instructions will be given
    • - PAR:
    • - Controller will advise that the aircraft is approach the glide path and will state “begin descent”
    • - Controller will issue course and glide path guidance and will inform of deviations from course or glide path (may also issue trend information)
    • - Heading instructions are preceded by “turn left” or “turn right”
    • - Controller will advise when the aircraft reaches the published decision height
    • - DH is determined by the altimeter or the controller, whichever occurs first
    • - Controller will continue to provide advisory course and glide path guidance until the aircraft passes over the landing threshold at which time the they will advise “over landing threshold”
    • - Controller will cease providing guidance when the pilot reports the runway/approach lights in sight and the pilot request to or advises that he/she will proceed visually
    • - Advise the controller as soon as practical if the decision is made to discontinue the approach
    • - No Gyro:
    • - Advise controller if the heading indicator should fail during flight, request a “no gyro” approach
    • - Acknowledge the controller’s commands to start and stop turns until advised not to acknowledge further transmissions
  38. Low Altitude Approaches
    - Low altitude instrument approaches exist for one purpose – to assist you in guiding your aircraft ot the final approach fix, on course, on altitude, and in the final approach configuration
  39. Procedure Turn Depection
    • - Depicted in the plan view of US charts with a barb symbol indicating the direction or side of the outbound course on which the procedure turn or maneuvering is to be accomplished
    • - The procedure turn fix is identified on the profile view of the approach at the point where the IAP begins
  40. Procedure Turn Rules for entry/timing
    • - PTs may be flown safely at speeds up to 250 KIAS, FAA recommends and USAF should observe 200 KIAS to remain within protected airspace (13.4.1)
    • - Plan the outbound leg to allow enough time for configuration and any descent required prior to the FAF
    • - Ensure you adjust the outbound leg length so you will stay inside the “remain within distance” noted on the profile view of the approach plate
    • - Holding technique: (13.6)
    • - Enter using holding procedures with the following exceptions:
    • - If the entry turn places the aircraft on the non-maneuvering side of the procedure turn course and you are flying in excess of 180 KTAS you must correct toward the procedure turn course using an intercept angle of at least 20°
    • - If you intercept the procedure turn course outbound, maintain the course for the remainder of the outbound leg, then turn toward the maneuvering side to reverse course
    • - Begin timing once you are outbound abeam the procedure turn fix. If you cannot determine the abeam position while in the turn, start timing after completing the outbound turn
    • - Do not descend from the procedure turn fix altitude (published or assigned) until you are abeam the procedure turn fix heading outbound
    • - If you cannot determine when you are abeam, start your descent after completing the outbound turn
    • - Do not descend from the procedure turn completion altitude until you are established on the inbound segment of the approach
  41. 45/180 and 80/260 course reversals
    • - Upon reaching the procedure turn fix, turn in the shortest direction to intercept the procedure turn course outbound. You may use normal lead points if practical
    • - Proceeding Outbound – intercept and maintain the procedure turn course outbound as soon as possible after passing the procedure turn fix
  42. Procedure Turn Descent
    • Do not descend from the procedure turn fix altitude (published or assigned) until you are abeam the procedure turn fix and on a parallel or intercept heading to the outbound track. (non-FAA required but USAF and ICAO procedure)
    • - Do not descend from the procedure turn completion altitude until you are established don the inbound segment of the approach
    • - At the appropriate time on the outbound leg, begin the course reversal maneuver, turn 45° away from the outbound track toward the maneuvering side.
    • - Begin timing upon initiation the 45° turn for 1 minute (Cat A/B) then begin a 180° turn in the opposite direction from the initial turn to intercept the procedure turn course inbound
    • - Begin the 80°/260° maneuver: make an 80° turn away from the outbound track toward the maneuvering side followed by an immediate 260° turn in the opposite direction to intercept the inbound course
  43. teardrop entry
    • - If you elect a teardrop entry, your teardrop course must be within 30° of the procedure turn course
    • - Use course guidance if available
  44. When to not fly the procedure turn
    • - Do not execute a procedure turn or HILO PT in the following situations
    • - S: ATC gives you clearance for a straight-in approach
    • - N: If you are flying the approach via No-PT routing
    • - E: When you are established in holding, subsequently cleared the approach, and the holding course and procedure turn course are the same
    • - R: ATC provides radar vectors to the final approach course
    • - T: ATC clears you for a timed approach (timed approaches in progress when you are established in a holding pattern and given a time to depart the FAF inbound)
  45. Procedure Track Depiction
    • - No specific depiction for a procedural track (it may employ arcs, radials, courses, turns, etc)
    • - When a specific flight path is required, procedural track symbology is used to depict the flight bath between the IAF and the FAF
    • - The depiction used is a heavy black line showing intended aircraft ground track
  46. Procedure Track: rules for entry/timing/descent
    • - When over the IAF, turn immediately in the shorter direction to intercept the published track. If your heading is within 90° of the procedure track course, you may use normal lead points to intercept the course. If your heading is not within 90° of the course, overfly the fix and turn in the shorter direction to intercept the procedure track course
    • - Conform to the specific ground track shown on the IAP
    • - Where a teardrop turn is depicted, you may turn to the inbound course at any time unless otherwise restricted by the approach plate (do not exceed the published remain within distance.
    • - Where a descent is depicted at the IAF, start descent when abeam or past the IAF and on a parallel or intercept heading to the procedural track course
    • - Except for initial descents at an IAF, be established on the appropriate segment of the procedural track before descending to the next altitude shown on the IAP
    • - Arc to Radial altitude restriction only applies while established on that segment of the IAP. Once al ead point is reached and a turn to the next segment is begun, you may consider yourself established on the next segment and descent to the next applicable altitude
    • - When an altitude restriction is depicted at a fix defined as an intersection of a radial and an arc, the restriction must be complied with no later than the completion of the lead turn associated with that fix.
    • - Where a teardrop is depicted, do not descend from the turn altitude until you are established on the inbound segment of the procedural track
  47. Holding in Lieu of: Depiction
    • - Depicted like any other holding pattern except the holding pattern track is printed with a heavy black line in the plan view
    • - The depiction of the approach in the profile view varies depending on where the descent should begin
  48. HILO rules for entry/timing/descent
    • - Enter and fly the HILO PT holding pattern according to standard holding procedures
    • - Descent from the minimum holding altitude may be depicted by a descent at the holding fix or a descent on the inbound leg
    • - When a descent is depicted on the inbound leg, you must be established on the inbound segment of the approach before beginning the descent
    • - If cleared for the approach while holding in a published HILO P, complete the holding pattern and commence the approach without making additional turns in the holding pattern (altitude permitting).
    • -If an additional turn is needed to lose excessive altitude, request clearance from ATC
  49. when not to fly a HILO
    SNERT (same as procedure turn)
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