Pre AP History Final Review 2009

  1. By the 1400's, Europeans wanted to find new ways to reach Asia because:
    Italy controlled the Asian trade and gained high profits.
  2. In 1400, a novel printing press was made in Europe by:
    Johannes Gutenberg.
  3. Resources and landforms can be found on a ____ map.
  4. Common Native American characteristics include:
    They all adapted to their physical geography.
  5. Tribes of the Iroquois League didn't:
    Bring peace and safety to Deganawida's Huron Tribe.
  6. Characteristics of the Renaissance in Europe:
    Renewed focus on classical history, philosophy, and culture.
  7. ____ of the land in the U.S. is used to farm a steady food supply.
  8. Factors which enable rich powerful empires of Ghana, Mali, and Songhai to develop in West Africa:
    Trade of salt and gold.
  9. ____ meet at the poles, while _____ circle the globe from east to west.
    Longitude Lines, Parallels.
  10. Geography theme that focuses on human and physical characteristics that make it unique:
  11. Factors that led directly to European exploration:
    The role of math and science in improving navigational skills.
  12. Renaissance ideas that focus on the achievements of man is known as
  13. Lines that measure distance from equator to specific location:
  14. The areas in which civilizations developed can be found on a:
    Historical Map.
  15. Example of human geography:
    • -bridges and tunnels built along highways.
    • -people moving to NWA for new jobs.
    • -hybrid cars made to use less gas.
  16. The boundary lines in Fayetteville would be on a:
    Political Map.
  17. Important features of Aztec civilization:
    Fierce warriors with strong military.
  18. Renaissance spread quickly throughout Europe because:
    Of the development of the printing press.
  19. Characteristics of the Native American tradition of potlatches includes:
    The wealth, power, and prestige of the tribal chief who hosted the gathering increased.
  20. Theories of arrival of humans included people crossing from Asia over the land bridge called:
  21. Characteristics of Joint-Stock companies:
    • -group of people invested in business together.
    • -investors shared the profits or losses from the business.
    • -large amounts of money were interested with limited risks.
  22. Characteristics of democracy, the government used by the classical Greeks, included:
    All male citizens debated and voted to help make laws.
  23. Colony of New France was based on land claims made by....
    James Cartier.
  24. Explorers who searched for NW Passage and claimed land for England:
    Cabot and Hudson.
  25. In Spanish New World colonies, farms that grew cash crops to send to Spain were called....
  26. Similarities between French and Dutch colonies in New World:
    Enriched their nations in Europe through fur trade.
  27. Spanish succeeded in conquering Native American civilizations like Incas and Aztecs because:
    The Spanish benefited from alliances through the Columbian Exchange.
  28. Reasons Philip II sent Spanish Armada against England:
    Land claims by English explorers threatened land belonging to Spanish in New World.
  29. Spanish decline as military power in Europe by late 1500's and Early 1600's resulted from:
    The defeat of Spanish Armada by smaller English navy.
  30. European explorer first credited with discovery of Pacific Ocean:
    Vasco Nunez de Balboa.
  31. Goals for European nations to explore New World and develop colonies include:
    • -to gain new territories and expand empires.
    • -to spread Christian faith among natives.
    • -import resources that help enrich nations.
  32. In Spanish New World colonies, Farms that produced food for people living in colonies called:
  33. To govern the colonies in new world move effectively, Spain divided its land into provinces called:
    Vice Royalties.
  34. The 2 vice royalties in the New World were named:
    Peru and New Spain.
  35. Oldest permanent settlement in New World:
    St. Augustine.
  36. Cortez and Pizarro were:
    Explorers who helped map Spanish land claims.
  37. Jamestown's colonists survived their starving time with help from the:
  38. The primary cash crops of the Southern colonies were:
    Indigo, Rice, and Tobacco.
  39. Ideas found in A Discourse on Western Planting included:
    Colonies would provide work for England's jailed debtors.
  40. The colony founded by William Penn on land given to his family by King Charles II was settled by:
  41. The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut included ideas that:
    Extended political power to all male non-church members.
  42. The New England colonies didn't rely on slavery as much as other colonial regions because:
    Their climate only allowed for short growing seasons.
  43. Characteristics of indentured servants included:
    Indentured servants came to the New World for economic opportunities but were landless after they were freed.
  44. The Pilgrims Voyage to the New World was financed by:
    The London Company of Virginia.
  45. The General Court in Massachusetts Bay Colony:
    Peacefully resolved differences between the colonists and the native people.
  46. Causes of King Phillip's War included:
    Native Americans felt the colonists were trading unfairly.
  47. Enlightenment thinkers believed that knowledge of the natural world could be gained from:
    Reason and Observation.
  48. The English people forced King James II off the throne in the _____, which was an example of the ideas of _____.
    Glorious Revolution, Social Contract.
  49. By refusing to pay taxes the loss of rights when royal governors of the Dominion of New England took away their representative assemblies, the colonists put into practice the rights they gained from the:
    Magna Carta.
  50. Mary Rowlandson, a colonist in MA was taken prisoner by native Americans when her village was attacked during:
    King Phillip's War.
  51. Enlightenment ideas were important and influential in the colonies because:
    Colonists believed that they could choose to act to improve their world.
  52. James Otis, Jr. claimed that the British had no right to tax the American colonies because:
    The colonies lacked elected representatives in Parliament.
  53. Published in The Pennsylvania Gazette, the first political cartoon in the colonies was created to support the:
    Albany Plan.
  54. Because of the Townshend Acts, duties were placed on goods such as:
    Glass, Paper, Paint, and Lead.
  55. By printing an article that criticized NY's governor, John Peter Zenger used rights that English citizens gained from:
    The English Bill of Rights.
  56. Put following things in chronological order:
    -Proclamation of 1763
    -Boston Massacre
    -Pontiac's Rebellion
    -Liberty was captured
    -Glorious Revolution
    • -Glorious Revolution
    • -Pontiac's Rebellion
    • -Proclamation of 1763
    • -Liberty was captured
    • -Boston Massacre
  57. Why couldn't the British win the Revolution?
    They couldn't restore the authority of the crown. They won battles, but they didn't take control of the territory or the population.
  58. What helped the Americans win the revolution?
    • -Better leadership.
    • -Foreign allies.
    • -Better knowledge of land.
    • -Stronger motivation.
    • - British COULDN'T win.
  59. What was the Treaty of Paris of 1783?
    • -Officially ended the Revolution.
    • -Great Britain recognized US independence.
    • -Set boundaries for US. (North: Canada, South: Spanish Florida, W: Mississippi River)
  60. What were the monetary costs of war in the American Revolution?
    • -US: $27 million (about $520 million today)
    • -Brit: 40 million pounds (about $5.3 billion today)
  61. What were the human costs of war in the American Revolution?
    • US:25,700 dead
    • 8200 wounded
    • 1400 missing

    British:10,000 dead
  62. What was Guerilla Warfare?
    • -Military tactic used in South.
    • -Swift, surprise, hit and run attacks.
    • -Targeted supply lines, communication lines, and small groups of soldiers.
    • -Avoided big battles.
    • -GOAL: wear down enemy.
  63. What was the last major battle of the American Revolution?
    The Battle at Yorktown.
  64. Why did the British shift their focus of the American Revolution to the South?
    • -Hoped to get support from the loyalists in the South.
    • -Control cash crops/wealth from south.
    • -Planned to free slaves and have them join Brit. Army.
    • -Strategy/War in north or at sea--not succeeding.
    • -Would be closer to supplies and soldiers in Brit. Colonies in West Indies.
  65. What was the War in the West?
    • War in American Revolution west of Appalachians.
    • Brit:led by Henry Hairbuyer Hamilton.
    • America:led by George Rogers Clark.
    • America captured British forts and defeated Hamilton.
    • Boosted America's confidence.
    • Drew attention of British away from East/Washington.
  66. Why was the War at Sea in 1779 important?
    • Boosted America's confidence.
    • Showed British Navy could be beaten.
    • Gained supplies for America.
    • British people and merchants began to speak out to end war.
  67. What was Valley Forge?
    • The planned winter camp in Southeast Pennsylvania during the winter of 1777-1778.
    • Supplies were found and taken by British.
    • 1/4 of Cont. Army died of malnutrition, disease, or exposure.
    • Cont. Army still trained.
    • Women of Philadelphia - saved Army by bringing supplies. Arrived on Jan 1st, 1778.
  68. Who was Marquis de Lafayette?
    • -French nobleman.
    • -Served as an officer in the Cont. Army.
    • -Used his own money to supply the soldiers.
    • -Persuaded Louis XVI to send 6000 soldiers and more supplies to America.
  69. Who were America's allies in the American Revolution?
    Germany (Prussia), Holland, and Spain.
  70. Why was the Battle of Saratoga important?
    • It got allies for the Americans, showed they might win war.
    • Lost Benedict Arnold - became a traitor and joined British Army after Saratoga.
  71. What did the Native Americans do during the American Revolution?
    • Most sided with British - to keep Americans from taking their land.
    • Some sided with Americans - to keep trade partners.
  72. What did the African Americans do during the American Revolution?
    • Some sided with British - slaves were promised freedom for helping British win.
    • Some sided with America - hoped they would share their freedom and equality with them.
  73. What were the women's roles in the American Revolution?
    • Helped on Battlefield (Molly Pitcher)
    • Ran farms and businesses.
    • Served as messengers, nurses, and spies.
    • Dressed as men to fight (Deborah Sampson)
    • Cooked and cleaned in Army Camps.
  74. What challenges faced Washington and his army during the American Revolution?
    • Lack of soldiers.
    • Lack of uniforms/supplies/weapons.
    • Poorly trained and undisciplined.
    • Many soldiers loyal only to their colony, not to Cont. Army.
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Pre AP History Final Review 2009