PSYC Test 2

  1. What is the current understanding of the process of memory? (complete and accurate or interpretive?)
    • Keep in mind there is no sure way to prove a "negative". That is, without some independent evidence, no one can prove conclusively the memory.
    • Memory is an interpretive system that takes in information and, much like an artist, discards certain details and organizes the rest into meaningful patterns.
  2. What are the three basic tasks of memory?
    • Encode 
    • Storage
    • Retrieval
  3. Memory takes meaningless sensory information into meaningful sensory information, which one can store and use for later
  4. Encording selects some ____ event from a vast input and makes a preliminary identification of the type (hearing, taste, etc.), ____ the distinctive features of the stimuli (is it loud?, Harsh?, etc.), and finally, it is mentally tagged or ____, the experience to be meaningful and continue along the memory pathway
    • Stimuli
    • Identify 
    • Label
  5. Emotionally charged experiences are more or less likely to be lodged in memory?
  6. Encoding is often ___ and rapid, so much we have no _____.
    • Automatic 
    • Awareness
  7. What is elaboration?
    • Attempting to connect a new concept with existing information in memory. 
    • Forcing connections you really don't want
    • Failure to elaborate is a common cause of memory error.
  8. What is the second basic task of memory?
  9. What is storage in memory?
    • 2nd basic task of memory 
    • Retention of encoded material over time
    • 3 stages for different lengths of time and in different forms.
  10. What is retrieval in memory?
    • 3rd basic task of memory
    • Access to stored information, bringing to consciousness, or, in some cases, influence your behavior at an unconscious level.
  11. The technical term for "photographic memory"?
    Eidetic memory
  12. How do eidetic images differ from photographs?
    • Photos render everything in minute detail, while an eidetic image portrays the most interesting and meaningful parts of the scene more accurately 
    • Eidetic Imaging is subject to distortions found in normal memories.
  13. Eidetic imagery is common in _____; up to 5% show some ability.
  14. Is there a gender difference in the matter of eidetic imagery?
  15. Believed to be a decline eidetic imagery with the development of _____ skills. 
    Placing an emphasis on logical thinking that typically comes with the beginning of formal education.
  16. What are the 3 sequential stages towards long-term memory?
    • Sensory memory
    • Working memory 
    • Long term memory
  17. Which of the sequential stages of memory is the most fleeting?
    Sensory memory
  18. Which sequential memory stage maintains incoming sensory information just long enough for it to be screened for importance by the next stage?
  19. Which sequential memory stage makes connections with long term memory?
    Working memory
  20. Working memory is also referred as ______.
    Short term memory
  21. Working memory hold information for about ___-___ sec.?
    • 20
    • 30
  22. Which sequential memory stage hold the barrage of incoming sensations just long enough for the brain to scan it and decide which stream of information needs attention?
  23. Adding an additional sensory type to the event such as adding a pitch to a certain line of letters aids the person. 

    What might be the result of adding this connection?
    • Subjects will report from only one row (the added audio row) rather than items from the whole array of letters.
    • Partial report condition-"any single row, not all rows"
  24. In sensory memory, memories last just long enough to . . .
    Dissolve into one another and give us a sense of flow and continuity in our experience.
  25. We have a ____ sensory register for each ____.
    • Different
    • Sense
  26. Sensory register for visual sensory
    IConic memory
  27. Sensory register for auditory
    Echoic memory
  28. Sensory register for Tactile sensory
    Tactile sensory memory
  29. Sensory register for Smell
    Olfactory sensory memory
  30. Sensory register for Taste
    Gustatory sensory memory
  31. Does sensory information have any meaning attached to it?
  32. Working memory holds information for __-__ sec.-far longer than sensory memory.
  33. Note: Working memory is significantly ____ than that of sensory memory.
  34. Concerning working memory, a ____ is any pattern or meaningful unit of information.
  35. Concerning working memory, ____ helps get more material into the 7 slots of working memory
  36. 2 mentioned Examples of chunking.
    • Phone numbers (777)777-7777
    • SSN 222-22-2222
  37. Concerning working memory, what is maintenance rehearsal?
    • Repeating it to yourself over and over again to force into long-term memory.
    • Temporarily in consciousness.
    • An ineffective method of achieving long term memory
  38. Concerning working memory, what is elaborative rehearsal?
    A working memory process in which information is continuously reviewed and actively related to information already in LTM
  39. Working memory is thought of as (not short term memory) the ______, directs attention from sensory to LTM and interfaces with the brain's voluntary (conscious) response system.
    Central executive
  40. Concerning working memory, what is acoustic encoding?
    • The conversion of information, especially semantic information, to sound patterns in working memory
    • Relating sounds to words. 
    • Reading "Pop!" and imagining a loud pop.
  41. Issue with acoustic encoding
    Confusion of similar sound letters (D and T) rather than from appearance (E and F)
  42. An encoding method of working memory, episodic buffer.

    Describe, please.
    • Binds information into a coherent episode.
    • Mentally maps them out, associating time with the task.
    • Temporary storage 
    • A place to organize the senses into a single memorable episode.
  43. What is the levels-of-processing theory?
    • The explanation for the fact that information that is more thoroughly connected in meaningful items in LTM will be remembered better. 
    • More connections better access
  44. 2 main components of LTM
    • Procedural memory 
    • Declarative memory
  45. 2 major subdivision for declarative memory (major component in LTM)?
    • Episodic memory
    • Sematic memory
  46. Episodic memory stores ____ (time tags) to identify when the occurred and ____ that indicates where it took place.
    • Temporal coding
    • Context coding
  47. Episodic memory is thought of as ____ memory.
  48. A sematic memory stores basic meaning of ____ and ____. retains no information about time and place.
    • Time 
    • Place
  49. Knowing what to do and expect from a birthday party is an example of ?
  50. _____ (LTM component) stores facts, impressions, and events.
    Declarative memory
  51. ____ aid declarative memory by making sense out of new information by giving us a ready-made framework for it.
  52. Children have limited ___ memory ability leading to childhood amnesia.
  53. H.M anterograde amnesia was induced by the removal of _____.
  54. H.M was able to retrieve old memories, but not able to make new ones.

    What can be said about the hippocampus?
    Crucial in making new memories but has no role in retrieving old memories.
  55. Engram?
    The physical changes in the brain associated with memory. It is known as the memory trace.
  56. Memories are stored throughout the _____.
    Cerebral cortex
  57. What is consolidation?
    • The process by which short-term memory become long-term over a period of time. 
    • With the help of the hippocampus
    • Memory eventually with repetition become strong and do not require the hippocampus.
  58. What is a flashbulb memory?
    A clear and vivid LTM of an especially meaningful and emotional event.
  59. The defining feature of flashbulb memory is the . . .?
  60. Flashbulb memory enphizize . . .?
    Where,what were you doing,and emotions felt for event.
  61. Are flashbulb memory more accurate than everyday memories?
  62. Flashbulb memories are retained longer and more accurately, although, confidence in ____ memories remained high.
  63. Evolutionary psychologists suggest that, in times of stress, the ability to make a quick and confident decision might make the difference between life and death
    • Yes 
    • LOL
  64. Sensory memory 

    Storage capacity?
    • 12-16
    • From 1/4 sec. to a few sec.
  65. Working memory 

    Storage capacity?
    • 7 (+-2)chunks
    • About 20 sec.unless rehearsed
  66. What is developmental psychology?
    • The psychology study of growth, change, and consistency through the lifespan
    • Examines these changes from multiple perspectives: physical, emotional, cognitive, sociocultural
    • Examines how both heredity and environment influence these changes
  67. What is the nature-nurture controversy primarily concerned with?
    • Recognizes that both nature and nurture play a role in almost all aspects of human behavior, and it now questions
    • (1) what the relative weight of each of these factors is and
    • (2) how the two factors might interact to ultimately produce a given characteristic.
  68. What is a teratogen?
    • Toxic substances that can damage the developing organism
    • Some pass through the placenta
  69. What are the most common teratogens?
    Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) refers to cognitive, behavioral, and body/brain structure abnormalities caused by exposure to alcohol in the fetal stage
  70. What are common consequences to a child whose mother smoked while pregnant?
  71. What about consequences of drinking alcohol during pregnancy?
    • Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), the most severe diagnosis, is distinguished by slow physical growth, facial abnormalities, and brain injury causing impairment in at least three areas of functioning.
    • Partial fetal alcohol syndrome (p-FAS) is characterized by two of the three facial abnormalities seen in FAS, as well as brain injury in at least three areas of functioning.
    • Alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND) is characterized by impairment in at least three areas of mental functioning, despite typical physical growth and absence of facial abnormalities.
  72. Describe the characteristics of newborn vision
    • Visual preferences:
    • Show preference for human faces
    • Prefer objects with a high degree of contrast

    • Least developed of senses at birth
    • Unable to see long distances, focus clearly
    • Scan environment and try to track interesting objects
    • Color vision improves in first two months.
  73. What is attachment?
    • Emotional relationship between child and parent
    • Harlow: preference for terry-cloth mom
    • Lorenz: imprinting
  74. What was Mary Ainsworth assessing with the “Strange Situation?”
    • Reactions to Separation and Reunion
    • Secure attachment: mild distress when mother leaves, seeking contact with her when she returns
    • Insecure attachment (anxious-ambivalent style): not exploring, clinging to mother, loudly upset when mother leaves, remaining upset when she returns
    • Insecure attachment (avoidant style): seeming indifferent to mother’s departure and return
  75. What are the characteristics of children with secure attachment?
    Secure attachment: mild distress when mother leaves, seeking contact with her when she returns
  76. What is cognitive development?
    The process by which mental abilities such as thinking, perceiving, knowing and remembering emerge and change over time
  77. What are assimilation and accommodation in Piaget’s theory?
    • Assimilation: Using current schemas to interpret external world
    • Accommodation: Adjusting old schemas and creating new ones to better fit environment
  78. What are the stages of Piaget’s theory of cognitive development in the correct order?
    • Senorimotor
    • Preoperational
    • Concrete Operational
    • Formal Operational
  79. What is the major cognitive advance made during the sensorimotor stage?
    • Goal-directed behavior—stumbling upon a new experience caused by the baby’s own behavior
    • Sensorimotor intelligence
    • Mental representations
    • Object permanence
  80. What is object permanence?
    the idea that objects exist even when they can’t be seen
  81. What is egocentrism?
    • Failure to distinguish others’ views from one’s own
    • Me time all the time
  82. What is conservation? In what stage are children unable to understand conservation? In what stage do children master conservation?
    • Conservation refers to the idea that certain physical characteristics of objects remain the same, even when their outward appearance changes.
    • Preoperational children’s inability to conserve highlights several related aspects of their thinking.
    • Concerte Operational: understand conservation
  83. What does recent research conclude about Piaget’s theory?
  84. What is temperament? What do we know about the stability of temperament?
  85. What parenting style produces confident, self-reliant children?
  86. What characteristic first shows up in the formal operational stage?
    • Abstract thought appears
    • Hypothetico-Deductive Reasoning: A problem-solving strategy that begins with a hypothesis, or prediction about variables that might affect an outcome, and, from the hypothesis, deductions of logical, testable inferences follow.
  87. ___ and ___ work together to help children master important developmental tasks in the areas of language, acquisition, cognitive development, and development of social relationships
    • Nature
    • Nurture
  88. What are the key aspects stressed by psychologists in the definition of intelligence?
    The mental capacity to acquire knowledge, reason, and solve problems effectively.
  89. What was the purpose of the school abilities test designed by Binet and Simon?
    • Developed a test to identify students needing support and remedial help
    • Measured current performance and not a measure of innate intelligence
    • Emphasized training and opportunity could affect intelligence
    • Constructed the test empirically
  90. How was the intelligence quotient calculated in the original Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale? Know how to apply this formula to an example.
    IQ=Mental Age/Chronological Age*100
  91. What was the key problem with calculating IQ using Terman’s original formula?
    Generally not accurate with adults
  92. What does it mean that intelligence is normally distributed? What is the average IQ score? What percent of the population scores under the average score?
    Image Upload 1
  93. What IQ score is the cutoff for below average (or mental retardation)? What is the cutoff for above average (or gifted)?
    Image Upload 2
  94. What are the known causes of mental retardation listed in the text?
    • Down’s syndrome
    • fetal alcohol syndrome
    • accidents that cause damage to brain
  95. What are psychometrics?
    • Psychometrics is the field of mental measurement in which psychologists developed:
    • =IQ tests
    • =Personality tests
    • =The SAT
  96. What theory of intelligence was proposed by Charles Spearman?
    Charles Spearman (1863-1945) performed a factor analysis* of different skills and found that people who did well in one area also did well in another. Spearman speculated that these people had a high “g” (general intelligence).

    *Factor analysis refers to a statistical technique that determines how different variables relate to each other; for example whether they form clusters that tend to vary together.
  97. What are the three components of Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of intelligence? Know the types of abilities that all three include.
    Practical intelligence: expertise and talent that help to complete the tasks and manage the complex challenges of everyday life Analytical intelligence: solving a well-defined problem with a single answerCreative intelligence: generating new ideas to help adapt to novel situations
  98. How many mental abilities does Gardner’s theory divide intelligence into? Which of Gardner’s mental abilities relate to emotional intelligence?
    • 8
    • Intra- and Inter-personal
  99. What is a self-fulfilling prophecy and how does it influence student performance?
  100. What does evidence show about the influence of heredity on intelligence? What about the influence of the environment?
  101. What does heritability refer to?
    Amount of trait variation within a group that can be attributed to genetic differences
  102. What is a possible source of bias in IQ tests that may account for group differences?
    • Many psychologists have argued that IQ test questions have built-in biases toward a middle- or upper-class background—biases that favor the White child
    • One source of possible bias stems from the fact that most IQ tests rely heavily on vocabulary level.
    • Gives advantage to children who have been read to and who are encouraged to read.
Card Set
PSYC Test 2
Test 2