psy 108: ch 13

  1. Lifespan approach to development
    Cognitive development

    • Argues that dvlpmental changes continue beyond young adulthood
    • We continue to change & adapt throughout our entire lives
  2. Own-race bias
    Memory in infants

    • Ppl's tendency to identify members of their own ethnic grp relatively accurately vs. members of another ethnic grp
    • Babies show this: white babies can tell diff btwn 2 White facaes but not btwn 2 asian faces
  3. Conjugate reinforcement technique
    Memory in infants

    • A mobile hangs above a young infant's crib w/a ribbon connected to its ankle & mobile so when infant kicks the mobile moves
    • NV measure to assess infant memory
    • Appealing to 2-6mo olds
    • Response = foot kick; reinforcement = mvmt of the mobile
    • Clever way to "ask" infants if they remember how to activate the mobile
    • Demonstrates LT retention shows a steady, linear improvement during 1st 18mo of life--cog ability/improvement is taking off
    • Disproves idea that infant memory is extremely limited--shows infants can remember actions even after substantial delay
    • Infant & adult memory influenced by many of same factors: context effects, eyewitness testimony, spacing effect, levels of processing effect
  4. Spacing effect
    Memory in infants

    • Students learn most effectively if their practice is distributed over time vs. learning material all at once
    • Infants also learn better w/this
    • Shows infant & adult memory influenced by many of same factors
  5. Childhood amnesia
    • Children's LTM
    • Autobiographical memory
    • Ppl typically don't describe events that occurred in own lives b4 2-3yrs old
    • Controversial subj
    • We know 2yr olds freq describe an event that occurred several weeks/months ago so they must be able to store verbal memories for substantial periods of time
    • Infants have memories qualitatively similar to memories of adults
    • LTM becomes reasonably strong when kids are abt 2-mo
    • Infantile amnesia: children under 2yrs don't have well-org'd sense of who they are so they'll have difficulty encoding & retrieving series of events connected w/themselves
  6. Source monitoring
    Children's LTM

    • Process of trying to decide which memories/beliefs are real & which are simply imagined
    • Remembering when & where you heard something
    • Kids under 7 have more difficulty distinguishing btwn reality & fantasy
    • Make most errors when imagine how it'd feel to do something so convince themselves they actually did it
    • Sometimes children recall they performed a task when actually performed by another person w/whom they'd been collaborating--memory of thinking abt project transforms into memory of actually completing project
    • Esp poor in children if questioned long time after original event
    • Much less accruate than adults
    • Can be easily confused when you suggest things to them
  7. Memory strategies
    • Intentional, goal-oriented activities we use to improve our memories
    • Recall memory requires active use of memory strategies which aren't dvlpd until middle childhood
    • Children have poor recall b/c can't use memory strategies effectively
    • Young children may not realize they're helpful vs. older children typically realize they are & often use variety of them so they can recall w/reasonable accuracy
    • Rehearsal, organizational strategies (categorizing & grouping), imagery
    • Children w/more sophisticated metacog abilities report using memory strategies & likely to use them effectively
    • Utilization deficiency
  8. Utilization deficiency
    Memory strategies

    • Some young children may not use the strategies effectively so strategies may not improve their recall
    • Don't use appropriate strategies when they need to--don't realize usefulness
  9. Prospective memory
    LTM in elderly

    • Remembering to do something in future
    • Older adults have difficulty on many of these tasks--generally make more errors than young adults
    • Relies heavily on working memory & ppl need to keep reminding themselves to do the task (older adults show decline in working memory)
    • Perform relatively accurately when there's an enviro cue to remind them--sometimes even more accurately than young adults [take medicine on daily basis] (compensate w/past experience)
    • Prob in working memory could lead to errors in prospective memory
  10. Cognitive slowing
    Age diff's in memory

    • Slower rate of responding on cog tasks
    • Can account for some age-related diff's in memory
    • Can't fully explain why elderly function well on some other memory tasks
  11. Theory of mind
    Metamemory in children

    Ppl's ideas on how their minds work & their beliefs abt other ppl's thoughts
  12. Memory self-efficacy
    Metamemory in elderly

    • Beleif their own potential to perform well on memory tasks
    • Think it's important to keep dvlping their memory & likely to perform well
    • VS. following stereotype that memory decline is inevitable
  13. Habituation
    Language in infants

    • Occurs after a stimulus has been presented freq
    • The response rate gradually decr & then remains low
    • Study of infants' capacity for speech perception: sucked on rubber nipples to produce specific phoneme -> sound becomes too boring & not worth hard work of sucking
  14. Cooing
    Language production in infancy

    • Sounds that involve vowels such as "oo"
    • Dvldpd by 2mo
  15. Babbling
    Langugage production in infancy

    • Vocalization that uses both consonants & vowels, often repeating sounds in a series
    • ["Dadda"]
    • By 6mo
    • Starts to sound like native lang approx 10mo--imitate phonemes they're hearing
  16. Child-directed speech
    Adults' language to infants

    • The lang spoken to children
    • Adults tend to make lang acquisition somewhat simpler by adjusting their lang when speaking w/kids
    • Uses repetition, simple vocab & syntax, slow pace, high pitch, exaggerated changes in pitch, exaggerated facial expressions
    • Originally called motherese
    • Help young lang learners understand meaning & structure of lang
    • Depressed mothers don't use most of this -> disadvantage to children
  17. Motherese
    Adults language to infants

    • Previously used for child-directed speech but gender biased
    • Tone we speak to babies in--soft & melodic
    • Goal: speak slowly & articulate so they understand the words, use context [hand signals, cues in enviro]
    • Helps kids pick up lang b/c tailored to what they need
  18. Fast mapping
    Language in children

    • Using context to make reasonable guess abt a word's meaning after just 1-2 exposures
    • Helps children learn new words
    • Demonstrates context is also critically important for young children
    • Children w/large vocab esp skilled in this
    • Vocab growth rapid if child is read to & caregivers describe activities together
    • Like spreading activation--using context to infer meaning
    • Relates to schemas
  19. Overextension
    Language in children

    • Use of a word to refer to other objs in addition to obj adults would consider appropriate
    • Objs shape/function important in determining these--but sometimess word usage can wander away from original meaning
    • Sometimes occurs when child doesn't yet know correct word for unfamiliar item or confused abt exact diff's btwn 2 concepts
    • VS underextension
  20. Underextension
    Language in children

    • Using a word in a narrower sense than adults do
    • [Apply name 'doggie' only to the family pet]
    • VS overextension
  21. Overregularization
    Language in children

    • Tendency to add most customary morphemes to create new forms of irregular words ["I felled"]
    • After children learn many words w/regular plurals & past tenses they progress to more advanced understanding of morphology & can sometimes create own reg forms ['mouses,' 'runned']
    • Later they learn many words have reg plurals & past tenses but some have irreg forms ['mice,' 'ran']
    • PDP framework: 1 explanation for this--says lang system keeps a tally of morpheme patterns for forming past tenses & since '-ed' is most common children generalize this ending to new verbs which forms inappropriate past tenses
    • Rule & memory theory: another explanation for this--gradually replace overregularized words w/appropriate ones
  22. Rule-and-memory theory
    Language in children

    • 1 explanation for overregularization
    • Children learn a general rule for past tense verbs which specifies they must ad '-ed'
    • But they also store in memory past tenses for many irreg verbs (only most common)
    • Children who remember an irreg form will consistently use it rather than apply default '-ed' & as they gather more expertise abt lang they gradually replace overregularized words w/appropriate ones
    • We have all these generalized rules for how phonemes work but also have memories that help us remember the rules for irreg/unique rules/words
Card Set
psy 108: ch 13