Human Biology 100 Exam 3

  1. Important components of food that are needed by the body for reproduction, growth, and good health are ________.
  2. Circular rings of smooth muscle that regulate the movement of food through the gastrointestinal tract are ________.
  3. Rhythmic waves of contraction called ________ move food through the esophagus.
  4. Mucosal cells of the stomach secrete ________ , which binds to vitamin B12 so that it can be better absorbed in the small intestine.
    intrinsic factor
  5. Region of the small intestine that is NOT associated with absorption of nutrients is called ________.
  6. “Brush border” refers to ________ found on the surface of the epithelial cells of the small intestine.
  7. Bile salts make fats easier to breakdown and mix with water through a process called ________.
  8. The digestion of proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates is completed in the ________.
    small intestine
  9. The liver stores excess glucose as _________.
  10. The small, fingerlike structure that extends from the cecum is the ________; this organ has no known digestive function.
  11. Bacteria residing in the large intestine release ________, which is absorbed by the human host and used for the process of blood clotting.
    vitamin K
  12. Gastrin is a hormone secreted by the ________.
  13. Natural sugars such as those from fruit and honey are classified as ________ (simple/complex).
  14. Fats that are liquids at room temperature are ________ (saturated/unsaturated).
  15. The amount of energy needed by the body to perform essential functions such as breathing is the ________.
    basal metabolic rate (BMR)
  16. Waste products that contain nitrogen are produced by cells as they metabolize ________ (proteins/lipids/carbohydrates).
  17. The metabolism of proteins for energy results in  ________ being produced and since it is toxic to cells it is converted to urea.
  18. The kidneys are connected to the urinary bladder by the ________.
  19. Urine is moved through the ureter to the bladder by muscular contractions known as ________.
  20. Each kidney is made up of a million ________, the functional unit of a kidney.
  21. The glomerulus (capillary network) of each nephron is enclosed by a portion of the nephron known as ________.
    Bowman’s capsule
  22. Nutrients, water, and ions reabsorbed by the proximal and distal tubules enter the ________capillaries.
  23. The mechanism of countercurrent exchange predominantly is used by the ­­­________.
    loop of Henle
  24. Sodium is moved out of tubular cells by ________.
    active transport
  25. Chloride ions move by ________ , following transport of sodium out of tubular cells.
    passive diffusion
  26. Intense exercise causes an increase in  ________ (2 words) in the blood which will decrease pH and must be removed through tubular secretion.
    hydrogen ions
  27. When blood volume is low _________ is released to increase water reabsorption at the collecting duct.
    antidiuretic hormone
  28. Angiotensinogen is converted to angiotensin II by ________.
  29. The steroid hormone ________ regulates the reabsorption of sodium across the collecting duct and distal tubule.
  30. Three organs in the human body are involved in the production of vitamin D; they are the ________, ________, and ________.
    skin, liver, kidneys
  31. Arrival of an action potential at an axonal terminals results in the release of ________.
  32. The contraction of smooth and cardiac muscle is controlled by the ________  nervous system.
  33. For an action potential to be generated, a minimum membrane voltage, or ________ , must be reached.
  34. Shifting the membrane potential of a neuron from negative to positive, due to inward movement of sodium ions, is referred to as ________.
  35. To re-establish the resting membrane potential in a neuron, the ________ must be activated.
    sodium-potassium pump
  36. Research involving graded potentials has shown that a neuron receiving many incoming signals from other neurons experiences a larger change in membrane potential than from one incoming impulse alone.  This phenomenon is known as ________.
  37. The ________ controls many functions in the body, including regulating body temperature and hunger drive.
  38. Cells in nerve tissue that support and protect neurons are ________ cells.
  39. Given a particular neuron, an action potential either occurs or does not occur, depending on the strength of the stimulus; therefore, the action potential is described as ________.
    all or none
  40. Cranial nerves and spinal nerves are part of the ________ nervous system.
  41. Bacterial and viral infections of the brain are rare because of the protective nature of the ________.
    blood-brain barrier
  42. Since the central nervous system is so important to the proper functioning of the body, the brain is protected by the ________ and the spinal cord is protected by the ________.
    skull, vertebrae
  43. The left and right cerebral hemispheres are interconnected by nerve tract network called the

    corpus callosum
  44. The ability to stand and move is due primarily to the action of ________ reflexes.
  45. Short-term memory is associated with the ________ , while long-term memory is associated with changes in the ________.
    limbic system, adrenal medulla
  46. ________ neurons transmit information about stimuli, in the form of electrical impulses, to integration centers.
  47. When an individual first gets dressed, he is conscious of the clothing on his body.  A short time later, however, he is no longer aware of it.  This is known as ________.
    receptor adaptation
  48. Olfactory receptor cells have a dendritic end that branches into several ________.
    olfactory cells
  49. Pain caused by a heart attack is often felt in the left shoulder and left arm. This phenomenon is known as ________ pain.
  50. ________ often times is not even detected until seconds or even minutes after an injury; this is due to activation of chemically sensitive pain receptors.
  51. The passageway that extends from the middle ear to the throat is the ________; this structure equalizes air pressure in the middle ear with atmospheric pressure.
    eustachian tubule
  52. The structure of the cochlea that converts pressure waves to nerve impulses is the ________; it is composed of hair cells and a tectorial membrane.
    organ of corti
  53. The movement of tiny, bonelike crystals called ________, located in the vestibule of the vestibular apparatus, is important in determining the position of the head.
  54. It is common for people who are traveling in cars or planes to experience an unpleasant sensation known as ________, which is due to conflicting sensory inputs from receptors located in muscles and tendons, the eyes, and the vestibular apparatus.
    motion sickness
  55. The middle layer of tissue in the back of the eye that consists of pigmented cells and blood vessels is the ________.
  56. The ________ regulates the amount of light entering the eye.
  57. A student is staring directly at a bird outside the classroom window. The image of the bird is focused on the ________ of the retina.
    fovea centrials
  58. The two structures of the eye that focus light are the ________ and ________.
    cornea, lens
  59. Light causes the pigment rhodopsin to ________, which in turn causes sodium channels on the photoreceptor cell to close.
    change shape
  60. Vision in dim light is due to the activity of ________ cells.
  61. Nonsteroid hormones require a ________ on the cell surface to communicate with cells.
  62. Steroid hormones depend on receptors inside the cell because these hormones are ________.
  63. ________ cells function in both the nervous and endocrine systems.
  64. Nonsteroid hormones are ________ acting than steroid hormones because they activate enzyme cascades within a cell.
  65. Hormones important in maintaining homeostasis are generally part of a ________ feedback loop.
  66. Neuroendocrine cells are located in the ________ and ________.
    hypothalamus, adrenal medulla
  67. Releasing and inhibiting hormones from the hypothalamus are carried to the anterior pituitary gland by the ________.
    pituitary portal system
  68. Hormones from the anterior pituitary gland are secreted in response to the presence of ________ from the hypothalamus.
    releasing hormones
  69. The endocrine cells of the pancreas are located in small groupings throughout the organ known as the ________.
    islets of Langerhans
  70. A student just finished a delicious breakfast of pancakes with syrup, orange juice, and Danish pastries. Because his blood sugar level has increased, the pancreas will secrete ________.
  71. Although most of the estrogen and testosterone produced in the human body is made by the ovaries and testes respectively, small amounts of these hormones are also produced by the ________.
    adrenal cortex
  72. The effect of parathyroid hormone is to ________ blood calcium levels.
  73. Lymphocytes mature to T cells in the ________.
  74. The pineal gland secretes ________, also known as the "hormone of darkness."
  75. Diabetes type _____ occurs when the pancreas cannot produce enough insulin.
Card Set
Human Biology 100 Exam 3
Bio EX3