- actual number of cells in relation to volume
- men: 4.6-6.2
- women: 4.2-5.6
- child: 3.2-5.2
- amount and maturity of white blood cell elements
- adult: 4,500-11,000
- child: 5,000-13,000
- amount of hemoglobin in 10 ml of blood
- man: 13-18
- woman: 12-16
- child: 11-12.5
- percentage of red blood cells per fluid volume of blood
- man: 42-52%
- woman: 35-47%
- child: 35-45%
- duration of bleeding after standardized skin incision; used for pre-operative screening
- 1.5-9.5 minutes
Prothrombin Time (PT)
- monitor effectiveness of warfarin therapy. detects coagulation disorders
- range: 9.5-12 seconds
Partial Thromboplastin Time (PTT)
- monitors effectiveness of heparin therapy. detects coagulation disorders
- lower limit of normal: 20-25 seconds
- upper limit of normal: 32-39 seconds
- thrombocyte count. used to diagnose hemorrhagic diseases, such as thrombocytopenia.
- range: 150,000-450,000
International normalized ratio (INR)
- monitors effectiveness of anticoagulation therapy.
- 1.0: normal
- 2-3: normal for therapy in patients with a-fib, DVT, & PE
- 2.5-3.5: normal for therapy in prosthetic heart valves
Sedimentation Rate (ESR)
- speed at which RBC's settle in well-mixed venous blood. indicates inflammation.
- man <50 years old:15
- man >50 years old: 20
- woman <50 years old: 25
- woman >50 years old: 30
Glucose Tolerance Test (GTT)
- measures ability of body to secret insulin in response to hyperglycemia
- fasting: 60-100
- 1 hour: 190
- 2 hours: 140
- 3 hours: 125
- evaluates tendency for atherosclerosis. patient needs to fast overnight
- range: 150-200
Low-density Lipoproteins (LDL)
- determines whether elevated cholesterol levels are caused by increased LDL or HDL. "bad cholesterol"
- <160: if no CAD & less than 2 risk factors
- <130: if no CAD and 2 or more risk factors
- <100: if CAD present
High-density Lipoproteins (HDL)
- determines whether elevated cholesterol levels are caused by increased HDL or LDL. "good cholesterol"
- men: 35-70
- women: 35-85
- test of renal function. Client needs to be NPO for 8 hours and list medications client is taking on medication slip.
- adult: 0.7-1.4
- child: 0.4-1.2
- infant: 0.3-0.6
- evaluates liver and bone function. client must be NPO 8-12 hours and list medications client is taking on medication slip.
- adult: 50-120 u/L
- infant & adolescent: up to 104 FU/L
- used to diagnose acute MI. detected in blood 3-5 hours after.
- MM bands present: skeletal muscle damage
- MB bands present: heart muscle damage
- used to detect protein malnutrition. maintains oncotic pressure which prevents third spacing.
- range: 3.5-5.5
- evaluate renal function. values affected by protein intake, tissue breakdown, & fluid volume changes.
- range: 10-20
- detect risk for atherosclerosis.
- range: 100-200
Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT)
- increase liver disease, hepatitis.
- range: 10-40 (males)
Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST)
- increase in liver disease, hepatitis.
- range: 10-40 units (males)