1. Articulation
    the site of the junction or union of two or more bones of the body; its primary function is to provide motion and flexibility to the frame of the body.
  2. Appendicular Skeleton
    Bone of the extremities. Arms, scapular, clavicle, pelvic girdle, and legs.
  3. Axial Skeleton
    Bone of the bodies central line. Skull, vertebrae, and rib cage.
  4. Cancellous Bone
    is the meshwork of spongy tissue (trabeculae) of mature adult bone typically found at the core of vertebral bones in the spine and the ends of the long bones (such as the femur or thigh bone).
  5. Cartilage
    a tough elastic tissue composing most of the embryonic skeleton of vertebrates. In the adults of higher vertebrates it is mostly converted into bone, remaining only on the articulating ends of bones, in the thorax, trachea, nose, and ears.
  6. Chondyle
    a rounded protuberance at the end of some bones, forming an articulation with another bone. On the femur, in the knee joint: Medial condyle, Lateral condyle. On the tibia, in the knee joint: Medial condyle, Lateral condyle. On the humerus, in the elbow joint: Condyle of humerus (Condylus humeri). On the mandible, in the temporomandibular joint: Mandibular condyle. On the occipital bone, in the atlanto-occipital joint: Occipital condyles.
  7. Cortical Bone
    is the dense outer surface of bone that forms a protective layer around the internal cavity. This type of bone also known as compact bone makes up nearly 80% of skeletal mass and is imperative to body structure and weight bearing because of its high resistance to bending and torsion.
  8. Diaphysis
    the shaft or central part of a long bone.
  9. Epicondyle
    a protuberance above or on the condyle of a long bone, especially either of the two at the elbow end of the humerus.
  10. Epiphyseal Plate
    is a hyaline cartilage plate in the metaphysis at each end of a long bone. AKA growth plate. Responsible for growing bone in adolescence.
  11. Epiphysis
    the end part of a long bone, initially growing separately from the shaft.
  12. Fossa
    an anatomical pit, groove, or depression.
  13. Ligament
    a short band of tough, flexible, fibrous connective tissue that connects two bones or cartilages or holds together a joint.
  14. Periosteum
    The dense fibrous membrane covering the surface of bones except at the joints and serving as an attachment for muscles and tendons.
  15. Tendon
    a flexible but inelastic cord of strong fibrous collagen tissue attaching a muscle to a bone.
  16. Trochanter
    a broad, flat process on the femur, at the upper end of its lateral surface (greater trochanter), or a short conical process on the posterior border of the base of its neck (lesser trochanter).
  17. Tubercle
    a small rounded projection or protuberance, especially on a bone.
  18. Tuberosity
    a rounded prominence; especially : a large prominence on a bone usually serving for the attachment of muscles or ligaments.
  19. Amphiarthrotic
    A type of articulation between bony surfaces that permits limited motion and is connected by ligaments or elastic cartilage, such as that between the vertebrae.
  20. Diarthrotic
    any freely movable joint, such as the shoulder and hip joints
  21. Synarthrotic
    An immovably fixed joint between bones connected by fibrous tissue (for example, the sutures of the skull).
  22. Synovial Joint
    a joint in which the opposing bony surfaces are covered with a layer of hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage within a joint cavity that contains synovial fluid, lined with synovial membrane and reinforced by a fibrous capsule and ligaments; and there is some degree of free movement possible.
  23. Long Bone
    are hard, dense bones that provide strength, structure, and mobility. The thigh bone (femur) is a long bone. A long bone has a shaft and two ends. Some bones in the fingers are classified as long bones, even though they are short in length.
  24. Short Bone
    are designated as those bones that are as wide as they are long. Their primary function is to provide support and stability with little to no movement. (carpals, tarsals)
  25. Irregular Bone
    are bones which, from their peculiar form, cannot be grouped as long, short, flat or sesamoid bones. (ex: vertebrae, sacrum, hyoid)
  26. Flat Bone
    are bones whose principal function is either extensive protection or the provision of broad surfaces for muscular attachment. These bones are expanded into broad, flat plates, as in the cranium (skull), the ilium (pelvis), sternum and the rib cage.
  27. Round (sesamoid) Bone
    any one of numerous small round bony masses embedded in certain tendons that may be subjected to compression and tension. The largest sesamoid bone is the patella, which is embedded in the tendon of the quadriceps femoris at the knee.
  28. Supinate (supination)
    turn or hold (a hand, foot, or limb) so that the palm or sole is facing upward or outward. Also rotating ankle outward.
  29. Pronate (pronation)
    rotation of the hand and forearm so that the palm faces backwards or downwards.  Also rotating ankle inward.
  30. Anterior
    nearer the front, especially situated in the front of the body or nearer to the head.
  31. Posterior
    further back in position; of or nearer the rear or hind end, especially of the body or a part of it.
  32. Superior
    is used to refer to what is above something.
  33. Inferior
    is used to refer to what is below something.
  34. Medial
    situated near the median plane of the body or the midline of an organ.
  35. Lateral
    the side of the body or a body part that is farther from the middle or center of the body.
  36. Proximal
    next to or nearest the point of attachment or origin, a central point, or the point of view; especially : located toward the center of the body
  37. Distal
    situated away from the center of the body or from the point of attachment.
  38. Caudal (or caudad)
    Pertaining to the tail or the hind part. 2. Situated in or directed toward the tail or hind part. 3. Inferior to another structure, in the sense of being below it.
  39. Cephalad
    toward the head; cranially.
  40. Ventral
    situated on or toward the lower, abdominal plane of the body; equivalent to the front, or anterior, in humans.
  41. Dorsal
    of, on, or relating to the upper side or back of an animal.
  42. Valgus
    of, relating to, or being a deformity in which an anatomical part is turned outward away from the midline of the body to an abnormal degree a valgus heel valgus deformity of the big toe.
  43. Varus
    of, relating to, or being a deformity in which an anatomical part is turned inward toward the midline of the body to an abnormal degree a varus heel.
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    Verbrugge Bone holding forceps
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    Kern bone holding forcep
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    Lowman bone holding forcep
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    Freer Elevator

    To remove periosteum

    Frequently used to manipulate bone fragments
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    Key Elevator

    Used to scrape periosteum from bones
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    Cobb Elevator

    Commonly used to elevate muscle and soft tissue away from bone

    May have cylindrical or hexagonal handle
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    Chandler Elevator

    Soft tissue elevator
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    McGlamry Elevator

    • Very common in Podiatry
    • Used to elevate metatarsal head
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    Lambotte Osteotome

    • Straight or Curved
    • To cut bone
    • Used with a mallet
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    Hoke Osteotome

    • Curved or straight
    • To cut bone
    • Used with a mallet
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    Leksell Ronguer

    • Larger, angled cutting tip
    • Double action
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    Hartman Rongeur

    • Small nose
    • Single action
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    Liston Bone Cutter

    Single or double action
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    Pin/Wire Cutter

    To cut K-wires and Steinman Pins
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    Pituitary Ronguer

    • Cuts bone or soft tissue in deep or confined spaces
    • Commonly used in spinal surgery
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    Kerrison Punch (Ronguer)

    • Cuts bone or soft tissue in deep or confined spaces
    • Commonly used in spinal surgery
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    Bone Rasp

    • To smooth rough edges
    • Single or double ended
    • Many varieties available
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    Bone Currette

    • To scrape bone
    • Curved or straight
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    Hohmann Retractor

    • Levering retractor
    • Also available in mini size…“Baby Hohmann”
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    Bennet Retractor

    • Levering retractor
    • Anchors on bone while retracting soft tissue
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    Cobra Retractor

    • Levering retractor
    • Anchors on bone while retracting soft tissue
    • Narrower than Bennet
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    Hibbs Retractor

    Soft tissue retractor
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    Charnley Retractor

    • Self retaining
    • Most commonly used in hip surgery
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    Lead Hand

    To retract fingers out of the way
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    Bone Tamp

    • To impact bone
    • Commonly used to tap bone grafts in place
    • Used with a mallet
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    Bone Awl

    To perforate bone
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    Oscillating (sagittal) Saw

    Blade moves side to side
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    Reciprocating Saw

    Blade moves back and forth
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    Power Drill
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    Jacobs chuck and chuck key

    • Hold drill bit
    • Requires key to tighten
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    Quick connect chuck

    • Holds drill bit
    • Bit snaps into place
    • Does not require key
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    Pin Collet

    • For driving pins and wires into bone
    • Squeeze trigger to grip pin
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    Inserts into drill handle
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    Transverse Fracture

    Straight line across bone
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    Spiral Fracture

    break spirals around bone
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    Comminuted Fracture

    Fracture has 3 or more pieces
  80. Bone protrudes through skin
    Compound Fracture
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    Greenstick Fracture
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    • Stellate Fracture
    • A bone fracture in which the lines of break radiate from a point, usually from the site of an injury.
  83. fractures that occur along (or nearly along) the axis of the bone.
    Longitudinal Fracture
  84. Compression Fracture
    is usually defined as a vertebral bone in the spine that has decreased at least 15 to 20% in height due to fracture.
  85. Osteocytes
    a bone cell, formed when an osteoblast becomes embedded in the matrix it has secreted.
  86. Osteoblasts
    a cell that secretes the matrix for bone formation.
  87. Osteoclasts
    a large multinucleate bone cell that absorbs bone tissue during growth and healing.
  88. Osteoporosis
    a medical condition in which the bones become brittle and fragile from loss of tissue, typically as a result of hormonal changes, or deficiency of calcium or vitamin D.
  89. Osteomalacia
    softening of the bones, typically through a deficiency of vitamin D or calcium.
  90. Osteopenia
    Osteopenia refers to bone density that is lower than normal peak density but not low enough to be classified as osteoporosis.
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