How was the Cold War caused?
A clash of political ideology between two superpowers
How did the Cold War manifest itself?
- - Proxy Wars
- - Arms Race
- - Space Race
Who were the superpowers at the time of the Cold War?
United States and Soviet Union
What was a superpower?
Superpowers were the most powerful countries at the time of the Cold War. They had access to nuclear weaponry, which gave them control to destroy the world in an instant
List the differences between the US and SU during the Cold War
- ~ Democracy
- ~ Free speech was more prominent
- ~ Capitalism
- ~ Dictatorship
- ~ Secret Police
- ~ Terror used to control people
- ~ Censorship
- ~ Communism
Why did the two superpowers disagree?
Russia believed in communism and America believed in capitalism
Who controlled Eastern Europe in 1945?
Stalin's Red Army
Name countries that were occupied by Russia during the Cold War
Hungary, Poland, Czechoslovakia
Who coined the phrase 'Iron Curtain' and why?
Winston Churchill, used to describe the divide between capitalist Western Europe and communist Eastern Europe
Which countries became known as 'Satellite States'?
The countries under Soviet control
Why was this War known as the 'Cold War'?
There was no direct physical fighting between the two superpowers
Who was president of the United States at the time of the Cold War?
What did Truman announce in 1947?
What was meant by the Truman Doctrine?
Containment. Truman wanted to prevent (contain) the spread of communism.
What was Marshall Aid?
The US offered to give economic support to any Eastern European country that resisted communism. Stalin forced these countries to refuse Marshall Aid
Case Study: Berlin Blockade
- After the war, Germany was defeated and its cities were completely destroyed. Millions were left homeless and there were very few jobs. To make matters worse, there were over 12 million refugees. These were German civilians who were forced to flee from countries such as Poland and Czechoslovakia. At this time, Germany was divided into four zones. The US, French, British and USSR each occupied a zone. Although it was situated in the Soviet Zone, Berlin was also split into four occupational zones.
- The Berlin Blockade essentially began because of disagreements between the US and the Soviet Union. The USA wanted to introduce democracy to the Germans and to also rebuild Germany's economy. They persuaded Britain and France to agree to join their three zones together to form West Germany. At the same time, their three zones in Berlin were joined together to form West Berlin. In June 1948, as part of the Marshall Aid Programme, a new currency, called the Deutschmark was introduced into West Germany. However, Stalin wanted to keep Germany weak and divided. He wanted to establish a communist state in the Soviet zone. Stalin was particularly worried about the Allied state in West Berlin. He knew that this state, with financial support from the USA, would become much richer than the Soviet zone.
- When the new currency was introduced into the Western zones of Berlin, Stalin acted. He decided to drive the Allies out of Berlin. Stalin ordered the closing of all road, water and rail access to the city. There was no way of travelling by land into the city. This is called a Blockade. Stalin thought that the west would not remain if the land access was cut, however he was soon very surprised by the Americans' response.
- Sticking to their policy of containment, America decided that they would not give in to being driven out of West Berlin. With support from the British, America decided to fly supplies to Berlin. The Americans called it Operation Vittles. It was later known as the Berlin Airlift. It lasted 320 days. On average, planes were landing in Berlin every three minutes. Each plane carried between 10 and 20 tonnes of supplies. The 2.5 million people depended on the airlift for food such as milk and flour. Coal was supplied to heat homes. The Soviets did not attack the planes as they knew it would lead to war.
- In May 1949, the Soviets admitted defeat and reopened the routes into West Berlin. The Berlin Blockade was over, but the divided centre was to remain at the centre of the Cold War until the collapse of communism in 1989.
What were the effects of the Berlin Blockade on the superpowers?
- ~ Containment had worked. Spread of communism stopped. North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) was formed to fight the USSR.
- ~ The USA and USSR were now total enemies, and any dispute might lead to war
- ~ Division of Germany now seemed permanent. The West became the 'Federal Republic of Germany' and the East became known as the 'German Democratic Republic'
- ~ West Germans were impressed with US work. They were allowed an army and joined NATO in 1955
Case Study: Korean War
- On June 25th 1950, the Korean War began, when some 75,000 soldiers from the North Korean's People's Army poured across the 38th parallel, the boundary between the Soviet-backed Democratic People's Republic of Korea to the south. This was the first military action of the Cold War. By July, the American troops had entered the war on behalf of South Korea. As far as American officials were concerned, it was a war against the forces of international communism itself.
- After some early back-and-forth across the 38th parallel, the fighting stalled and casualties mounted with nothing to show for them. Meanwhile, American officials worked anxiously to fashion some form of armistice with the North Koreans. The alternative, they feared, would be a wider war what involved Russia and China, or even worse, as some had warned, World War III. Finally in July 1953 the Korean War had come to an end. In all some 5 million soldiers and civilians had lost their lives in the war. The Korean Peninsula is still divided today.
What was the Arms Race?
The rivalry between the USA and the USSR to have more and better weapons than each other
Who was the communist leader of China?
Mao Tse Tung
Who was the leader of the Republic of Korea?
Who was the leader of the Communist People's Republic of Korea?
Kim Il sung
Who as the US General during the Korean War?
Where did the Americans land in the Korean War?
Who replaced General MacArthur?
What were the effects of the Korean War on the superpowers?
- ~ US policy of containment had been achieved
- ~ USA and USSR still didn't directly fight each other. Soviets aided North Korea and China, but didn't fight US
- ~ The Cold War had now spread to outside Europe. This meant America would have to work hard to contain communism
Case Study: Cuban Missile Crisis
- After Stalin's death, Nikita Khrushchev became the leader of the Soviets. He introduced 'Peaceful Coexistence' meaning he wanted East and West Germany to live in peace. For a while, relations had improved, however, in 1956, Khrushchev sent troops into Hungary to crush a revolt against Soviet control. The Arms Race continued and both troops developed missiles that could travel thousands of miles. They were very powerful and could destroy a city in an instant.
- In 1961 a meeting between the new US president, John F. Kennedy, and Khrushchev went very badly. Khrushchev began to bully JFK. Worried by mass emigration, he tried to force the allies out of Berlin. When this failed, the Soviets built a wall in Berlin to stop East Germans fleeing to the west. This was called the Berlin Wall. JFK and Khrushchev were very suspicious of each other, leading to the worst crisis of the Cold War.
- In 1959, after a successful revolution, Fidel Castro came to power in Cuba. This worried the Americans, as Cuba had now become a communist country. The US banned all trades with Cuba and in 1961, an American-backed attempt to overthrow Castro was defeated at the Bay of Pigs. Castro now gained support from the USSR. The Soviets bought their main export, sugar, and they also planted missiles in Cuba. Khrushchev did this for two main reasons:
- ~ He had gained a communist ally close to USA
- ~ The Soviets weaponry wasn't as good as America's. They felt that by planting missiles
- Nearer to America they would be catching up
- JFK soon found out about the missile plants in Cuba. Special planes, known as U-2s took photos of missile bases. Kennedy set up a group of senior advisors. They had secret meetings to discuss what actions should be taken. Many advisors suggested that Kennedy organised an attack on the missile sites or invaded Cuba. Instead he stopped Soviet ships travelling to Cuba. This is called a Blockade. This meant that a war would not begin and his response would allow for negotiations. On October 22nd 1962, JFK went on tv to tell the world about soviet missiles. He said that Cuba was in quarantine. The American army was ready for a war. Kennedy said that if a missile was launched the USSR would be attacked. It seemed World War III was coming. However, like Kennedy, Khrushchev didn't want war. The USA and the USSR came to an agreement:
- ~ The Soviets withdrew their missiles
- ~ Americans promised not to attack Cuba
- ~ USA secretly withdrew missiles from Turkey
What were the effects of the Cuban Missile crisis on the two superpowers?
- ~ The crisis scared the superpowers into staying peaceful
- ~ A hotline was set up between the White House and the Kremlin to improve future communications
- ~ Partial Test Ban Treaty set up. Both countries stopped testing nuclear weapons on land or at sea
How did the Cold War end?
- ~ 1985: Michael Gorbachev came to power in Russia
- ~ Wanted to improve relations between USA and USSR
- ~ 1989: people of Eastern Europe forced their communist governments to change
- ~ November 1989: Berlin Wall removed
- ~ 1990: Division of Germany ended
- ~ In the USSR communism collapsed. Country was replaced by independent countries i.e. Russia, Ukraine, Estonia, Lithuania