Neolithic Period

  1. What does Neolithic mean?
    New Stone Age
  2. When did the Neolithic period begin?
    4000 BC
  3. What did pollen samples indicate?
    • ~ Less pollen from trees and more from grass
    • ~ Pollen from wheat and barley, indicating crops
    • ~ NOT POLLEN: bones of cattle, sheep and goats were found
  4. What major change happened in 4000 BC?
    People had changed from hunter-gatherers to farmers
  5. Where did farming begin?
    Mesopotamia, modern Iran and Iraq
  6. When did farming begin in the world?
    8000 BC
  7. What materials did Neolithic people use to create weapons and tools?
    Flint and porcellanite
  8. Where did archaeologists find porcellanite?
    Co. Antrim
  9. Where were excavations taken place to find out more about Neolithic farmers?
    Lough Gur, Limerick
  10. How were Neolithic houses made?
    Wooden poles were placed in the ground. They were bent and woven with branches into a dome shape. They were then plastered with mud to keep out rain and wind. This was known as wattle and daub. A thatched roof was then put on top.
  11. Explain the clothing used in Neolithic Ireland
    Wool from sheep was used for clothing. The wool was spun and weaved, and dyed with berries and plants. Bone necklaces and stone pendants have been found at Lough Gur.
  12. Explain pottery in neolithic Ireland
    Neolithic farmers were the first people to learn how to use clay. A lump of wet clay was mounded into the shape of a pot. The pots were then left to dry before being put in fire to cook. Some pots were decorated by pressing sticks or fingernails into the wet clay to create a pattern.
  13. How did Neolithic farmers contain their fields?
    Farmers built stone walls around their fields
  14. Where were neolithic stone walls found by archaeologists?
    Céide Fields, Co. Mayo
  15. Wen did people live at the Céide fields?
    Between 4000 BC and 3000 BC
  16. What did the New Stone Age people believe about death?
    Neolithic people believed in life after death. We know this as they went to great troubles to build sophisticated tombs.
  17. What were neolithic tombs known as?
    Megalithic tombs
  18. How many megalithic tombs are there in Ireland?
    Over 2,000
  19. How long ago were megalithic tombs built?
    5,000 years ago
  20. Name the three types of megalithic tombs
    • ~ court cairns
    • ~ dolmens
    • ~ passage tombs
  21. Explain court cairns
    These were tombs with an open area, or court, at the entrance. They are the oldest type of tomb in Ireland. From the outside they look like a pile of stones, however on the inside there are chambers for the remains of the dead
  22. Explain dolmens
    Dolmens are also known as portal tombs. They look like huge stone tables, as they are built with two or three large upright stones with a stone laid on top. These top stones are called capstones and can weigh over 100 tonnes. Archaeologists believe that the stones were put in place using log rollers, wooden levers and ramps.
  23. Explain passage tombs
    Passage tombs are similar to court cairns, but a lot bigger. From the outside, they look like a round hill, but on the inside there is a chamber and a long passage. There are over 200 passage tombs in Ireland.
  24. Name a place where a court cairns was found
    Skreen, Co. Sligo
  25. Where can a domen be found?
    The Burren, Co. Clare
  26. Where can a passage tomb be found?
    Newgrange, Co. Meath
  27. Explain the term corbelled roof
    The roof is an extension of the walls. The walls gradually go in at the top to create a dome.
  28. What is the roof box at Newgrange?
    The roof box is a square stone opening over the entrance of the tomb, which allows light in once a year, on December 21st. This light enters the tomb and stays for 17 minutes.
Card Set
Neolithic Period
Neolithic period