Facilitating Healthy behaviors Midterm exam

  1. Until the late 1970s and early 80s health educators and programmers focused primarily on what?
    Knowledge, attitudes, motivations of individuals
  2. The ecological model assumes that individuals’ behaviors is influenced by 5 factors, know those factors
    individual, social/cultural/group, socioeconomic and structural, political, environmental
  3. ecological model factor: individual
    • awareness and knowledge
    • personal attitudes and motivations
  4. ecological model factor: social/cultural/group
    • cultural attitudes and beliefs
    • peer group lifestyles patterns
  5. ecological model factor: socioeconomic and structural
    poverty, education, access to health care
  6. ecological model factor: political
    policies and funding for health promotion programs
  7. ecological model factor: environmental
    • presence of environmental risk such as air and water pollution
    • disasters
  8. The individual factors of the ecological model include
    • awareness and knowledge
    • biophysical
    • personal attitudes and motivations, developmental stage
    • behavior/habit socialization
  9. You have just been hired to reduce the childhood obesity problem in the Valley school district. How might you apply the factors of the ecological model to address the above issue?:
    Awareness and knowledge (individual factor): have the teachers introduce a nutrition unit for a small amount of time in class twice a week; social/cultural/group factors: send home a survey for the parents to fill out to see what their attitudes and beliefs are about obesity and how much support they can give their children; socioeconomic and structural factors: find out what the socioeconomic status is of the families in the school district and if there are any health or community resources that are available to the community that you could incorporate into your program
  10. Theories are tools that explain
  11. Behaviorist Psychology: define
    Behavior is learned through a process of stimulus and response. Thinking is not a major part of this process
  12. Cognitive Psychology: define
    Focus on the thinking process: include perception, memory, decision-making, interpretation, reasoning, judgment (seen used individual level theories)
  13. Social Psychology
    Focuses on the interaction between individuals and the group, groups, relationships, social units
  14. Cultural Anthropology
    Focus on the role of culture in human behavior, the ways in which life-patterns are organized, together with systems of knowledge and belief, language and symbol
  15. Humanistic Psychology
    Focus on individual capacity, on human capability of choice. Assume human beings desire to grow and attain their full potential. Fulfill basic needs first then higher needs (maslow)
  16. Of all the fields of study which has the biggest influences on the health behavior theories:
  17. The Health Belief Model is known as the
    Value Expectancy Theory
  18. Know the key constructs of the Health Belief Model
    Perceived susceptibility (ones opinion of chances of getting condition)

    Perceived severity (ones opinion of how serious a condition and it consequences are)

    Perceived benefit (ones belief in the efficacy of the advised action to reduce risk or seriousness of impact)

    Perceived barriers (ones opinion of the tangible and psychological and costs of the advised action)

    Cues to action (strategies to activate readiness)

    Self Efficacy (confidence in ones ability to take action)
  19. Critique(s) of the Health Belief Model
    focuses on individual decisions – doesn’t account for social and environmental factors

    assumes that everyone has equal access to and equivalent level of information to make rational calculations

    does not account for disparities in knowledge
  20. Know the constructs of the Theory of Reasoned Action
    • says that an individual will perform some action X based on:
    • their attitude towards performing the behavior (what believe happen; if bad or good)

    subjective norm associated with the behavior (what other people think, motivation to conform)
  21. Know the constructs of the Theory of Planned Behavior.
    behavioral beliefs – attitude towards the behavior

    • normative beliefs – subjective norm                                               
    • control beliefs – perceived behavioral control
    • == intention = behavior

    Control beliefs – concerning the presence or absence of facilitators and barriers to performing behavior

    Perceived power of each of these factors to facilitate or inhibit the behavior
  22. Know the Transtheoretical Model(AKA Stages of Change)
    -Precontemplation: no intent to take action/change behavior

    -contemplation: intention to change, maybe within the next six months

    -preparation: intention to take action in the immediate future, say in the next month

    -action: a specifc relevant modification in the behavior is made

    -maintenance: striving to maintain change, prevent relapse

    -termination: individual no longer succumbs to temptation and has self efficacy about maintenance
  23. Name one the major critiques of the Transtheoretical Model(AKA Stages of Change).
    How do you measure what stage people are in

    people don’t always go through a fixed set of stages, in a straight line (go in circles)
  24. Vicarious Learning, situation and reinforcement are all examples of what factor of the Social Cognitive theory?
    Environmental factor
  25. Explain teen pregnancy using vicarious learning, situation and reinforcement.
    -Vicarious learning: You would hope that by observing the behavior of someone who is pregnant and the consequence of that behavior, which is a baby, that the teen would be able to learn that it’s a lot of work to have a baby.

    • -Situation: If the teens peers or friends are pregnant and possibly the attention they are getting would make the teen perceive that being pregnant is okay and a desireable circumstance
    • -Reinforcement: So if the teen gets pregnant and they have a positive experience this could make it so they would want to be pregnant again; the same with a negative experience
  26. Example of the individual factor of social cognitive theory
    • self efficacy: a person who wants to eat healthy and has had some success when trying it before would feel confident in their ability to change.     
    • Behavioral capability: A person has taken several nutrition classes and so has the knowledge to try to eat healthier
  27. examples of environmental factors of social cognitive theory
    Vicarious learning: A child see’s a teacher reward a another child for good behavior and the child then learns that if they want a reward they can have good behavior.

    Reinforcement: a child is put in time out for misbehaving which could be a negative reinforcement which would help the child not want to perform that behavior again.
  28. examples of reciprocal determinism for the social cognitive theory
    Reciprocal determinism:

    with working on our behavior changes we have the opportunity to meet with our group and go over what we are doing and share success or struggles and in turn that motivates us to keep working on our behaviors and possibly make changes as we learn what is working for our group members and applying that in our life
  29. Social Marketing campaigns are built around the the “4 Ps.” What are those “Ps”
    Product: The behavior, program, technology

    Price: cost of adoption (not necessarily financial)

    Place: Where products available

    Promotion: how to promote the first three P’s
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Facilitating Healthy behaviors Midterm exam
Summer 2017 facilitating healthy behaviors mid term exam