U.S. History Final Exam

  1. What was the Kansas Nebraska Act?
    1854- Created Nebraska and Kansas as states and gave the people in those territories the right to chose to be free or slave state through popular sovereignty.
  2. What was popular sovereignty?
    When people hold the final authority in all matters of government.
  3. Who were abolitionists?
    People who believed that slaves should be against the law.
  4. What is Uncle Tom's Cabin?
    A novel published by Harrier Beecher Stowe in 1852 which portrayed slavery as brutal and immoral.
  5. What was the Dred Scott decision?
    • A ruling by the Supreme Court in 1857
    • Reversed by the Fourteenth Amendment in 1868
    • Black Americans were not citizens under the Consitution
  6. What was John Brown's Raid?
    • in 1859, the militant abolitionist John Brown seized the U.S. arsenal at Harper's Ferry.
    • Planned to end slavery by massacring slave owners and freeing their slaved.
    • Was captured and excited.
  7. Who was Abraham Lincoln?
    • 16th President of the U.S.
    • Saved the Union during the Civil War
    • Emancipated the salves
    • Was assassinated by Booth (1809 -1863)
  8. Who was Jefferson Davis?
    President of the Confederate States of America
  9. Who was Andrew Jackson?
    • A Southerner from Tennessee
    • V.P. when Lincoln was killed, he became president
    • Opposed radical Republicans who passed Reconstruction Acts over his veto.
    • The first U.S. president to be impeached.
    • Survived the Senate removal by only one vote.
    • Was a very weak President.
  10. Who was Stonewall Jackson?
    • General in the Confederate Army during the Civil War
    • His troops were at the first Battle of Bull Run
    • He stood like a stone wall (1824 - 1863)
    • Shot by his own men
  11. What was a Radical Republican?
    A member of Congress during Reconstruction who wanted to ensure that freedman received the right to vote.
  12. What is the 13 amendment?
    Prohibition of slavery (1865)
  13. What is the 14 amendment?
    Guarantees equal protection of the laws (1868)
  14. What is the 15 amendment?
    Forbids any state to deny blacks the right to vote because of race.  (1869)
  15. What were black codes?
    Southern laws that severely limited the rights of African Americans after the Civil War.
  16. What is impeachment?
    To bring charges of serious wrongdoing against a public official.
  17. What are scalawags?
    White southerners who supported the Republicans during Reconstruction.
  18. What is a carpetbagger?
    A negative nickname for a northerner who went to the South after the Civil War.
  19. What are Southern Democrats?
    They supported slavery
  20. What is sharecropping?
    Renting a plot of land from a person and farms in exchange for a share of the crop.
  21. What happened in the election of 1876?
    • Extremely close election in which the Republican and Democratic candidates tied
    • Ended reconstruction
  22. What was Plessey vs. Ferguson?
    Supreme Court rules that it is legal for a state to create separate facilities for blacks and whites.
  23. What were Jim Crow Laws?
    Law that separated people of different races in public places in the South.
  24. What is segregation?
    Legal separation of people based on racial, ethnic, or other differences.
  25. What was the Ku Klux Klan?
    Secret society organized in the South after the Civil War to continue white leadership by means of violence.
  26. What was the Louisiana Purchase?
    • Territory in western United States purchased from France in 1803 for $15 million
    • Extends from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains and from the Gulf of Mexico to Canada.
  27. Who were Lewis and Clark?
    Two explorers sent by the president to explore the Louisiana Purchase.
  28. Who was Sacajawea?
    The Native American women who was the personal guide and translator for Lewis and Clark and their expedition in northern Louisiana Territory.
  29. What was the Adams - Onis Treaty?
    A result of the War of 1812, the U.S. acquired Florida from Spain and fixed the settlement of the western boundary of Louisiana.
  30. What is manifest destiny?
    The belief that the U.S. should extend all the way to the pacific ocean?
  31. Texas Anexation
    • Texas gave up status as an independent nation to be added on to the U.S. in 1845
    • Triggered war between the U.S. and Mexico
  32. What was the Alamo?
    Site of battle where 200 Texans were surrounded and slaughtered by 600 Mexican forces.
  33. What was the Gold Rush?
    A period from 1848 to 1856 when thousands of people came to California in order to search for gold.
  34. What was the Oregon Trail?
    • A route from Independence, Missouri to Oregon City, Oregon.
    • Used by the pioneers traveling to the Oregon Territory
  35. What was the Monroe Doctrine?
    An American foreign policy opposing interference in the Western hemisphere from outside powers.
  36. What is imperialism?
    A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries politically, socially, and economically.
  37. What was Yellow Press?
    • Also called yellow journalism
    • A term used to describe the sensationalist newspaper writing of the time of the Spanish American war
    • They were written on cheap yellow paper
    • The most famous yellow journalists was William Randolph Hearst.
    • Yellow journalism was considered tainted journalism (Omissions and half - truths.
  38. Why the phrase "Remember the Maine" used?
    • The ship the "Maine" sunk during the Spanish/American war.
    • The yellow press quickly pounced on the tragedy to inform everyone about it.
  39. What was the Treaty of Paris?
    An agreement signed by British and American leaders that stated the U.S. was a free and independent country.
  40. Who were the Rough Riders?
    Volunteer solders led by Theodore Roosevelt during the Spanish American War.
  41. What was the USS Maine?
    A ship that exploded off the coast of Cuba in Havana harbor and helped contribute to the start of the Spanish - American war.
  42. What was the open door policy?
    A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which all nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.
  43. What was the Monroe Doctrine?
    A statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the US or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere.
  44. Who was Theodore Roosevelt?
    • The 26 President
    • Known for: Conservationism, trust - busting, Hepburn Act, safe food regulations, "Sqare Deal," Panama Canal, Great White Fleet, Nobel Peace Prize for negotiation of peace in Russo - Japanese War
  45. What was the Spanish - American War?
    • A war fought between the U.S. and Spain in Cuba and the Philippines.
    • Lasted less than 3 months.
  46. What did the Spanish - American war result in?
    It resulted in Cuba's independence as well as the US annexing Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines
  47. What was trench warfare?
    • Fighting with trenches, mines, and barbed wire.
    • Horrible living conditions, great slaughter, no gains, stalemate.
    • Used in WWI.
  48. Who were the Central powers?
    Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey
  49. Who was Archduke Ferdinand?
    • Assassinated in 1914 by a Serbian terrorist.
    • His assassination started the conflict of WWI.
  50. What was the Lusitania?
    • British passenger ship sunk by a German U-boat.
    • 1200 people died including 128 Americans.
  51. What was the Zimmerman note?
    • German telegram sent to Mexico proposing an alliance.
    • Stated that Germany would help Mexico reconquer the lose territory of New Mexico.
  52. What was the Selective Service Act?
    Required men 21-30 to register to be drafted into the armed services.
  53. What are the fourteen points?
    Wilson's ideals after war, freedom of ships on the seas, smaller armies, end of secret agreements between nations.
  54. What are liberty bonds?
    Money from the sale of these provided loans tot he Allies to buy food and war supplies.
  55. What is the armistice of WWI?
    • Truce that ended the war.
    • 11th hour, 11th day, 11th month, 1918 (Veterans Day)
  56. Who is Wilhelm II?
    German leader who thought Germany could get through Belgium to get to France before Russia could mobilize their troops and the war would be over in 6 months.
  57. Who were the Allies of WWI?
    • Britain, France, Russia
    • Later joined by Italy
  58. What does mobilize mean?
    To prepare military for war.
  59. What was the Schlieffen Plan?
    • Germany's plan for a fast attack on France then an attack on Russia.
    • Belgium slowed them down.
  60. What was the Triple Entente?
    France, Britain, & Russia's alliance
  61. What is no-man's land?
    The area between opposing trenches.
  62. What are U-boats?
    • Submarines
    • Were the worlds largest and most advanced
    • Caused heavy losses to Allied shipping.
  63. What is a stalemate?
    Neither side can win a clear victory.
  64. What were 3 new weapons used to fight in the trenches?
    Airplanes, poison gas, machine guns, and tanks.
  65. What is propaganda?
    Posters created to encourage Americans to support the war.
  66. What are the underlying causes of WWI?
    Militarism, alliances, imperialism, and nationalism.
  67. What is the Treaty of Versailles?
    • Final peace settlement of WWI.
    • Harsh on Germany
  68. Who were the dough boys?
    American foot soldiers.
  69. What is a victory garden?
    A kitchen garden planted during wartime to relieve food shortages.
  70. Who is Franz Ferdinand?
    • Heir to throne in Austria who was assassinated by a Serb nation allisted.
    • Started the war
  71. Who were the Central powers and who joined them later?
    • Austria-Hungary & Germany
    • Later joined by Bulgaria & the Ottoman Empire.
  72. Who was Nicholas II?
    Russian czar who hesitated to mobilize troops after Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia.
  73. What was the Treaty of Breast-Livtovsk?
    Peace treaty to keep Russia out of the war.
  74. What was the Triple Alliance?
    • Germany, Austria-Hungary alliance
    • Later joined by Italy
  75. What was the LEague of Nations?
    • Organization of nations formed to settle international disputes and maintain peace
    • Failed
    • Us didn't join
    • No military force
  76. What was trench warfare?
    • French+German armies built protective ditches.
    • They dug simple holes or complex networks with rooms for sleeping and eating.
  77. What is militarism?
    The building up of military forces or strong influence of military values on a society.
  78. What is balance of power?
    A situation in which the strength of rival alliances is nearly equal.
  79. What is the sedition act of 1918?
    Made it illegal for Americans to speak disloyally about the U.S. government.
  80. What are communists?
    People who seek the equal distribution of wealth and an end to all forms of private property.
  81. What is an armistice?
    A truce
  82. What is self-determination.
    The right of people to decide their own political status.
  83. What are reparations?
    Payments for damages and expenses caused by the war.
  84. Who is Woodrow Wilson?
    President of the United States during WWI.
  85. What is a flapper?
    • A woman who drank and smoked in public.
    • Wore short skirts, make-up and suffered from eh double standard.
  86. What are the groups that approved of prohibition?
    Rural residents, members of organized crime and women's Christian Temperance Union
  87. What is the Lost Generation?
    A term which describes liberal thinkers during the roaring 20's.
  88. What are speakeasies?
    Underground hidden nightclubs where people can obtain liquor illegally.
  89. What is an installment plan?
    A plan to pay for goods by putting a small amount of money down and continuing to pay a small amount each month.
  90. Who is Duke Ellington?
    One of America's greatest composers and jazz pianist.
  91. Who is Al Capone?
    • The leader of organized crime in Chicago
    • In charge of the St. Valentines Day Massacre.
  92. Who is Louis Armstrong?
    Important jazz musician who played the trumpet.
  93. Who is George Gershwin?
    • A well known composer
    • Wrote "Rhapsody in Blue"
  94. Who is Ernest Hemingway?
    • Writer who criticized the glorification of war
    • Wrote "The Old Man and the Sea"
  95. Who is F. Scott Fitzgerald?
    He wrote "The Great Gatsby"
  96. Who is Charles Lindbergh?
    He made the first non-stop flight across the Atlantic.
  97. Who is Babe Ruth?
    • Baseball hero
    • Made 60 home runs in one season
  98. Who is Jack Dempsey?
    Fighter defeated by Gene Tunny in the famous "long count" fight.
  99. What is communism from the Roaring 20's?
    Economic and political system based on a single party government ruled by a dictator.
  100. What are bootleggers?
    People who made money by selling, making or transporting liquor during Prohibition.
  101. What is the Ku Klux Klan from the Roaring 20's?
    Members in this group increased during the Red Scare but soon declined due to their use of violence.
  102. What is an anarchists?
    Radical opposition to any and all forms of government.
  103. What was the Sacco and Vanzetti Trial?
    • They were convicted because they were Italians and anarchists.
    • Good examples of xenophobia (fear of foreigners)
  104. What is the Scopes Monkey Trial?
    • Clarence Darrow defended John Scopes when he was accused of teaching evolution to high school students.
    • Darrow was an agnostic(someone who questions humans ability to comprehend the full understanding of God).
  105. Who is Williams Jennings Bryan?
    • Prosecuting lawyer in the Scopes Monkey Trial.
    • He was considered a fundamentalist (someone who believes in a literal interpretation of the Bible).
  106. What is isolationism?
    A policy followed by the US after WWI in hopes of remaining out of European Affairs.
  107. What is the 19th amendment?
    It gave women the right to vote.
  108. What is the 18th amendment?
    It prohibited the sale, manufacture and transportation of alcohol.
  109. Who was Herbert Hoover?
    • President during the Great Depression.
    • Not well liked.
    • Ignored the depression of the country and the lack of jobs and homes.
  110. What is Black Tuesday?
    • October 29th, 1929
    • The day the stock market crashed.
  111. What are Hoovervilles?
    Shanty towns built by the homeless during the Great Depression.
  112. What is prohibition?
    A law forbidding the sale of alcoholic beverages.
  113. What were Fireside chats?
    • The informal radio conversations Roosevelt had with the people to keep spirits up.
    • It was a means of communicating with the people on how he would take on the depression.
  114. What was the Dust Bowl?
    • Region of the Great Plains that experienced a drought in 1930 lasting for a decade.
    • Left many farmers without work or substantial wages.
  115. What was the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)?
    It was relief that provided work for young men 18-25 years old in food control, planting, flood word, etc.
  116. What was the Great Depression?
    • Started after the crash of the stock market.
    • The period started in 1929-1940.
    • Unemployment skyrocketed and many people lost their jobs and homes.
  117. What were Okies and Arkies?
    • Derogatory name given to victims of the Dust Bowl who headed for California.
    • These people were discriminated against because they took jobs away from Californians.
  118. What were the causes of the Great Depression?
    Stock market crash, overpopulation, high tariffs, under consumption, buying stocks on margins, buying on creadit
  119. What was the impact of the Great Depression on citizens?
    Families became homeless, children had poor diets, and men became uemployed
  120. What ended the Great Depression?
  121. Who was Adolf Hitler?
    Leader of the Nazi Party and the Third Reich in Germany during WWII.
  122. Who was Benito Mussolini?
    Known as "II Duce" -- the Leader -- the Fascist dictator of Italy during WWII.
  123. Who was Josef Stalin?
    leader of Soviet Union also worked with Roosevelt and Churchill during WWII.
  124. What was FDR?
    • 32nd President of the US
    • Elected four times
    • Instituted New Deal to counter the Great Depression and led country during WWII.
  125. Who was Dwight Eisenhower?
    • United States general who supervised the invasion of Normandy and the defeat of Nazi Germany.
    • President who sent federal troops to Little Rock to guarantee that the nine African-American students were protected and integration would occur.
  126. Who was Winston Churchill?
    Britain's new prime minister during WWII who pleaded for US aid.
  127. Who was Erwin Rommel?
    • The Desert Fox.
    • Commander of the Axis forces in North Africa.
  128. Who was Chester Nimitz?
    US admiral of the Pacific fleet during WWII who used aircraft carriers to destroy the Japanese navy.
  129. Who was Douglas MacArthur.
    • US general who served as chief of staff and commanded Allied forces in the South Pacific during WWII.
    • He accepted the surrender of Japan.
  130. who was Yamamoto?
    Japanese admiral who planned the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941.
  131. Who was Hriohito?
    Emperor of Japan during WWII.
  132. What is appeasement?
    Satisfying the demands of dissatisfied powers in an effort to maintain peace and stability.
  133. What is the Blitzkrieg?
    • German word meaning lightning war.
    • The swift attacks launched by Germany in WWII.
  134. What is the Lend-lease Act?
    Allows America to sell, lend, or lease arms or other war supplies to any nation considered "vital to the defense of the U.S."
  135. What was Operation Overlord?
    • The code name for the Allied invasion of Europe at Normandy on June 6, 1944.
    • Also known as D-Day.
  136. What is the Battle of the Bulge?
    The last German attempt at an offensive strike at the allies.
  137. What is V-E Day?
    • May 8, 1945
    • Victory in Europe Day when the Germans surrendered.
  138. What was Kristalnacht?
    The two days when Nazi troops attacked Jewish homes, businesses and synagogues, also known as "Night of the Broken Glass."
  139. What was the Holocaust?
    The Nazi program of exterminating Jews under Hitler.
  140. What is Pearl Harbor?
    • Base in Hawaii that was bombed by Japan on December 7, 1941.
    • Got America to enter the war.
  141. What was Midway?
    • Naval battle that was a turning point in the war in the pacific.
    • Americans sank 4 Japanese aircraft carriers.
  142. What was the Doolittle Raid?
    Bombing of Tokyo that boosted American morale.
  143. What is island hopping?
    • Strategy of Allies in WWII of capturing some Japanese-held islands and going around others.
    • Strategy the Allies followed in the Pacific.
  144. What is the Kamikaze?
    Japanese suicide pilots who laded their planes with explosives and crashed them into American ships.
  145. What was Iwo Jima?
    • A bloody and prolonged operation on a key Japanese island in which American marines landed and defeated Japanese defenders.
    • 8 square mile volcanic island that the Allies finally captured in March, 1945.
  146. What is Hieroshima?
    • City in Japan
    • The first to be destroyed by an atomic bomb, on August 6, 1945.
    • The bombing hastened the ed of WWII.
    • First city on which the atom bomb was dropped.
  147. What is Nagasaki?
    • Japanese city in which the second atomic bomb was dropped.
    • Second city on which the atom bomb was dropped.
  148. What is the atomic bomb?
    • Bomb that changed the world.
    • Ended WWII in Japan.
    • Created a nuclear arms race between U.S. and Soviet Union.
  149. What is internment?
    The name for the forced relocation and confinement of Japanese-Americans to concentration camps.
  150. Who was Harry Truman?
    • FDR's vie president that took over when he died.
    • Made the decision to drop the atomic bomb.
  151. What was Los Alamos?
    Place where the atom bomb was designed and built.
  152. What is Okinawa.
    Island that was the last amphibious assault of the war and whose capture in June, 1945 was the bloodiest battle of the Pacific.
  153. What is the Royal Air force?
    English air force
  154. What are Nazi's?
    Party founded by Hitler.
  155. What is the Luftwaffe?
    German air force.
  156. What is the Nuremberg Laws?
    Legislation that stripped Jews of civil rights.
  157. What is El Alamein?
    Allied victory in North Africa.
  158. What are the Philippines?
    Country that MacArthur had to abandon to avoid capture by the Japanese.
  159. what is Bataan?
    American death march took place here.
  160. What is Stlingrad?
    • Soviet city that turned back the German advance.
    • Turning point of the war.
  161. What is Midway Ilsand?
    Naval battle was the turning point in the Paficif where the US sank four Japanese aircrafts.
  162. What is the Rhineland?
    Territory near Belgium and France invaded by Hitler in 1936.
  163. What is Manchuria?
    Area that Japan seized in 1931 to obtain coal and oil.
  164. What does North Africa have to do with WWII?
    Country that Italy invaded in 1935.
  165. What does Munich have to do with WWII?
    City at which a conference was help to decide the fate of Czechoslovakia.
  166. What does the Sudetenland have to do with WWII.
    Sectio nof Czechoslovakia that Hitler demanded.
  167. What happened on June 6th, 1944?
  168. What happened on December 7th, 1941?
    Attack on Pearl Harbor.
  169. What was Fat Man & Little Boy?
    The code names given to the two atomic bombs that the Americans produced.
  170. What was the Potsdam Conference?
    The name of the conference that Truman, Stalin, and Churchill attended to decide what to do about the war.
  171. What was the battle of Leyte Gulf?
    The battle at which the Japanese first introduced the "kamikaze."
  172. Why did the War Department think it was important to capture Okinawa?
    They could make air bases to attack Japanese mainland.
  173. When did WWII start and end?
  174. Where was the place that the famous American flag raising picture was taken?
    Mount Suribachi
  175. What was the Russian war strategy of destroying anything of use to the Germans?
    Scorched earth method
  176. What does Poland have to do with WWII?
    • WWII began with Germany's invasion of this city.
    • Large number of concentration camps located here.
  177. Who was Heinrich Himmler?
    Leader of the German SS.
  178. What was Auschwitz?
    The most notorious Nazi death camp.
  179. What was the Wannsee conference?
    The Nazi's finalized their plans for the systematic elimination of the Jewish population at this conference.
  180. What was Hitler's final solution?
    To destroy the Jewish population of Europe.
  181. What was the Atlantic Charter?
    Churchill and FDR meet to define the Allied goals for the post-war world.
  182. What are the black shirts?
    The followers of Mussolini were known as these.
  183. What was the Versailles Treaty?
    Hitler's expansion of the German military violated the terms established in 1919.
  184. What is Mien Kampf?
    • "My Struggle"
    • Hitler's book on his philosophy.
  185. Who is Joe McCarthy?
    Anti-communist Wisconsin senator who started another "Red Scare" after he claimed to have a list of communists working the government.
  186. Who was Julius and Ethel Rosenberg?
    They were convicted in 1951 of giving bomb data found by American scientists to the Soviet Union and executed.
  187. What was Nikita Khrushchev?
    Leader of the Soviet Union during the building of the Berlin Wall and the Cuban Missile Crises and after Stalin died.
  188. Who was Fidel Castro?
    Communist leader of Cuba.
  189. What was John Kennedy?
    • President who led Bay of Pigs invasion.
    • Led us through Cuban Missile Crisis.
  190. What was the Truman Doctrine?
    President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism.
  191. What was the Red Scare?
    A period of general fear of communists started by Joe McCarthy.
  192. What was the Marshall plan?
    A plan that the US came up with to revive war-torn economies of Europe.  This plan offered $13 billion in aid to western and Southern Europe.
  193. What was the Cold War?
    This period of time following WWII is where the US and the Soviet Union emerged as superpowers and faced off in an arms race that lasted nearly 50 years.
  194. What is the inter-continental ballistic missles?
    • Long-range nuclear missiles capable of being fired at targets on the other side of the globe.  The reason behind the Cuban Missile Crises.
    • Russia was threatening the U.S. by building launch sites for these missiles in Cuba.
  195. What is the Berlin Blockade?
    • Blockaded east Germany from American supplies.
    • Americans bypassed by air-lifting goods to the Germans.
  196. What is NATO?
    An alliance made to defend on e another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries
  197. What is containment?
    American policy of resisting further expansion of communism around the world.
  198. What is the Bay of Pigs?
    • American attempt to overthrow the newly established communist government in Cuba by training and sending Cuban rebels.
    • The coup ended up in a disaster due to the lack of support by the Americans.
  199. What is the Cuban Missile Crises?
    The 1962 confrontation between US and the Soviet Union over Soviet missiles in Cuba.
  200. What is quarantine?
    What Kennedy called the "blockade" around Cuba.
  201. What are war powers act?
    A law enacted in 1973, limiting a president's right to send troops into battle without consulting congress.
  202. What is a POW?
    A person who surrenders to (or is taken by) the enemy in time of war.
  203. What is SALT?
    Negotiations between the US and the Soviet Union designed to limit both countries' stock of nuclear weapons.
  204. What is the Berlin Wall?
    A wall separating East and West Berlin built by East Germany in 1961 to keep citizens from escaping to the West.
Card Set
U.S. History Final Exam
Questions for my U.S. History final exam.