unit 5- maintaining dynamic equilibrium

  1. life depends on the avalibility of an energy source and raw materials used in the basic...
    enzyme-controlled biochemical processes of living things
  2. the result of response to change is known as...
  3. what is dynamic equillibirum?
    a steady state that keeps the internal environment within certain limits
  4. what is an element?
    a substance made up entirely of one kind of atom 

    ex: silver contains ONLY silver atoms
  5. what is a compound?
    formed when two or more elemtnts combine chemically 

    properties are different from those of the elements they are made of
  6. the formation of a chemical bond involves...
    the transfer of electrons from one atom to the other, or the sharing of electrons between atoms
  7. what is a chemical formula?
    represents the chemical makeup of a compund

    ex: H2O
  8. what are equations used for?
    to describe chemical reactions
  9. what is a chemical equation?
    an equation that uses the formulas of an element instead of words
  10. what elements must be present for a compound to be considered organic?
    carbon AND hydrogen
  11. what are the major "types" of organic molecules?
    lipids, starches, proteins, and nucleic acids
  12. carbohydrates
    • energy rich
    • main source of energy for cell activities 
    • contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
    • the ratio of hydroogen to carbon is generally 2 to 1
  13. monosaccharides
    • simplest carbohydrates
    • simple sugars
    • building blocks of carbohydrates
    • ex: glucose (C6H12O6)
  14. disaccharide
    • formed by 2 simple sugars
    • sometimes called a double sugar  
    • joined by dehydration synthesis
    • ex: maltose (C12H22O11)
  15. polysaccharides
    • long chains of sugar molecules (monosaccharides)
    • found in starch and cellulose
  16. lipids
    • oils and fats
    • fats are solid at room temperature, lipids are liquid at room temperature
    • the ratio of hydrogen to oxygen in lipids is GREATER than 2:1
    • the building blocks of lipids are fatty acids and glycerol
  17. proteins
    • C, H, O, N, S, P
    • building blocks: amino acids
    • form important products such as enzyme 
    • 2 amino acids bonded together: dipeptide
    • many amino acids bonded together: polypeptides
  18. enzymes
    • biological catalysts: lower energy of activation
    • allow body to break down and synthesize substances
    • active site: where reactions take place
    • coenzyme: vitamins
    • substrate: compound which an enzyme works on
    • optimum temperature: temperature at which the enzyme functions best
  19. photosynthesis equation
    6 CO2 + 12 H2O --> C6H12O6 + 6 H2O + 6 O2
  20. what type of cellular respiration requires oxygen?
  21. what type of cellular respiration does not require oxygen?
    anaerobic respiration or fermentation
  22. enzyme controlled reactions
    potential energy of organic molecules, such as glucose, are transferred to a more avaliable form of energy
  23. T OR F: 
    the chemical energy in organic food molecules can be used directly be cells

    the chemical energy in organic food molecules cannot be used directly be cells
  24. antigen
    a substance (such as a toxin or enzyme) capable of stimulating an immune response
  25. antibodies
    carried by blood, fight foreign substances that enter the body
  26. active immunity
    YOU make the antibodies
  27. passive immunity
    • SOMEONE ELSE makes the antibodies
    • does not last as long as active immunity
  28. feedback mechanism
    mechanisms for self regulation
  29. negative feedback
    • regulates the secretion of enzymes by endocrine glands
    • the level of one hormone inhibits the production of another
  30. T OR F:
    Antibodies may be produced in response to an antigen
    • FALSE
    • antibodies ARE produced in response to an antigen
  31. describe feedback mechanism using the human pancreas
    rhe level of sugar in the blood is affected by the amount of insuin in the blood
Card Set
unit 5- maintaining dynamic equilibrium
131-154 of UPCO book