life depends on the avalibility of an energy source and raw materials used in the basic...
enzyme-controlled biochemical processes of living things
the result of response to change is known as...
what is dynamic equillibirum?
a steady state that keeps the internal environment within certain limits
what is an element?
a substance made up entirely of one kind of atom
ex: silver contains ONLY silver atoms
what is a compound?
formed when two or more elemtnts combine chemically
properties are different from those of the elements they are made of
the formation of a chemical bond involves...
the transfer of electrons from one atom to the other, or the sharing of electrons between atoms
what is a chemical formula?
represents the chemical makeup of a compund
what are equations used for?
to describe chemical reactions
what is a chemical equation?
an equation that uses the formulas of an element instead of words
what elements must be present for a compound to be considered organic?
carbon AND hydrogen
what are the major "types" of organic molecules?
lipids, starches, proteins, and nucleic acids
- energy rich
- main source of energy for cell activities
- contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
- the ratio of hydroogen to carbon is generally 2 to 1
- simplest carbohydrates
- simple sugars
- building blocks of carbohydrates
- ex: glucose (C6H12O6)
- formed by 2 simple sugars
- sometimes called a double sugar
- joined by dehydration synthesis
- ex: maltose (C12H22O11)
- long chains of sugar molecules (monosaccharides)
- found in starch and cellulose
- oils and fats
- fats are solid at room temperature, lipids are liquid at room temperature
- the ratio of hydrogen to oxygen in lipids is GREATER than 2:1
- the building blocks of lipids are fatty acids and glycerol
- C, H, O, N, S, P
- building blocks: amino acids
- form important products such as enzyme
- 2 amino acids bonded together: dipeptide
- many amino acids bonded together: polypeptides
- biological catalysts: lower energy of activation
- allow body to break down and synthesize substances
- active site: where reactions take place
- are SHAPE SPECIFIC
- coenzyme: vitamins
- substrate: compound which an enzyme works on
- optimum temperature: temperature at which the enzyme functions best
6 CO2 + 12 H2O --> C6H12O6 + 6 H2O + 6 O2
what type of cellular respiration requires oxygen?
what type of cellular respiration does not require oxygen?
anaerobic respiration or fermentation
enzyme controlled reactions
potential energy of organic molecules, such as glucose, are transferred to a more avaliable form of energy
T OR F:
the chemical energy in organic food molecules can be used directly be cells
the chemical energy in organic food molecules cannot be used directly be cells
a substance (such as a toxin or enzyme) capable of stimulating an immune response
carried by blood, fight foreign substances that enter the body
YOU make the antibodies
- SOMEONE ELSE makes the antibodies
- does not last as long as active immunity
mechanisms for self regulation
- regulates the secretion of enzymes by endocrine glands
- the level of one hormone inhibits the production of another
T OR F:
Antibodies may be produced in response to an antigen
- antibodies ARE produced in response to an antigen
describe feedback mechanism using the human pancreas
rhe level of sugar in the blood is affected by the amount of insuin in the blood