Ch. 6 General Anatomy and Physiology

  1. the study of the structures of the human body that can be seen with the naked eye, and of what substances they are made. The science of the structure of organisms, or their parts
  2. the study of the functions and activities performed by the body structures
  3. microscopic anatomy, is the study of the tiny structures found in living tissue
  4. basic unit of all living things, from bacteria to plants to animals to human beings
  5. There are ______ of cells in the human body, and they vary widely in size, shape, and purpose
  6. a colorless, jellylike substance in which food elements such as proteins, fats, carbohydrates, mineral salts, and water are present
  7. organelle
    small organ
  8. Most cells include...
    • protoplasm
    • organelle
    • cytoplasm
    • cell membrane
  9. dense, active protoplasm found in the center of the cell. It plays an important part in cell reproduction and metabolism
  10. all the protoplasm of a cell except that found in the nucleus
  11. Cytoplasm is a watery fluid that contains the food material necessary for...
    • cell growth
    • reproduction
    • self-repair
  12. the usual process of cell reproduction in human tissues that occurs when the cell divides into 2 indentical cells called daughter cells
  13. As long as conditions are favorable cells will continue to...
    grow and reproduce
  14. Favorable conditions for cell include....
    adequate supply of food, oxygen, and water; suitable temperatures; and the ability to eliminate waste products
  15. chemical process in which cells are nourished and carry out their activities in living organisms
  16. contructive metabolism, the process of building up larger molecules from smaller ones
  17. the phase of metabolism in which complex compounds within the cells are broken down into smaller ones
  18. a collection of similar cells that perform a particular function
  19. supports, protects, and binds together other tissues of the body
    Connective tissue
  20. fat; gives smoothness and contour to the body
    adipose tissue
  21. 2 protein fibers that are located in the connective tissue
    collagen and elastin
  22. protective covering on body surfaces
    epithelial tissue
  23. examples of epithelial tissue
    skin, mucuous membranes, the lining of the heart, digestive and respiratory organs, and the glands
  24. tissue that contracts and moves the various parts of the body
    muscle tissue
  25. carries messages to and from the brain and controls and coordinates all bodily functions.
    nerve tissue
  26. Nerve tissue is composed of special cells known as ______, which make up the nerves, brain and spinal cord
  27. tissue that is found in the blood and lymph
    Liquid tissue
  28. structures composed of specialized tissues designed to perform specific functions in plants and animals
  29. Name all the 11 Main Body Systems; (Hint: DR. I.M SCREEN, L)
    • Digestive
    • Respiratory
    • Integumentary
    • Muscular
    • Skeletal
    • Circulatory
    • Reproductive
    • Endocrine
    • Excretory
    • Nervous
    • Lymphatic
  30. Which system contains the blood supply; controls the steady circulation of the blood through the body by means of the heart and blood vessels
  31. Body System in which food is changed into nutrients and waste; consists of mouth, stomach, intestines, salivary and gastric glands
  32. Body system that serves as a protective covering for the body and helps in temperature regulation; consists of skin, accessory organs such as oil and sweat glands, sensory receptors, hair, and nails
  33. groups of bodily organs acting together to perform one or more functions
    Body Systems
  34. Functions of the Skeletal System
    • Movement
    • Absorption
    • Protection
    • Support
  35. one of the functions of bone marrow
    help produce both white and red blood cells
  36. The human head contains __ bones divided into 2 groups:
    22; cranium and the facial bones
  37. an oval, bony case that protects the brain, formed by 8 bones
  38. The face consists of how many bones?
  39. maxilla
    upper jaw
  40. lower jaw
  41. Name the 8 bones that make up the cranium
    • occipital
    • (2)parietal
    • frontal
    • (2)temporal
    • ethmoid
    • sphenoid
  42. the hindmost bone of the skull; it forms the back of the skull above the nape
  43. bones that form the sides and crown(top) of the cranium
  44. bone that forms the forehead
  45. bones that form the sides of the head in the ear region
  46. the light spongy bone between the eye sockets that forms part of the nasal cavities
  47. joins all the bones of the cranium together
  48. Name the 14 bones of the face
    • 2 Nasal bones
    • 2 Lacrimal bones
    • 2 zygomatic bones
    • 2 maxillary bones
    • mandible
    • 2 turbinal bones
    • vomer bone
    • palatine bones
  49. malar bones or cheekbones; form the prominence of the cheeks, or cheekbones
    zygomatic bones
  50. which bones form the upper jaw
  51. The main bones of the neck
    hyoid bone and cervical vertabrae
  52. U-shaped bone at the base of the tongue that supports the tongue and its muscles
  53. the seven bones of the top part fo the vertabral column located in the neck region
    cervical vertebrae
  54. An elastic, bony cage that serves as a protective framework for the heart, lungs, and other internal organs
  55. 12 pairs of bones forming the wall of the thorax
  56. shoulder blade; the large, flat, triangular bone of the shoulder.
  57. Breastbone; the flat bone that forms the ventral (front) support of the ribs
  58. collarbone; joins the sternum and scapula
  59. uppermost and largest bone of the arm, extending from the elbow to the shoulder (funnybone)
  60. palm; consists of 5 long, slender bones
  61. digits, are the bone in the fingers, 3 in each finger and 2 in each thumb, totaling of 14 bones
  62. The study of the nature, structure, function, and diseases of the muscles
  63. The human body has how many muscles
    over 630
  64. What percent of the 630 muscles are responsible for the body's weight?
  65. Out of the over 630 muscles, how many of them are facial muscles?
  66. skeletal or voluntary, are attatched to the bones and make up a large percentage of body mass and are controlled by the will
    Striated muscles
  67. Involuntary, visceral, or smooth muscles; function automatically, without conscious will. These muscles are found in the digestive and circulatory systems as well as some internal organs of the body
  68. involuntary muscle that makes up the heart. This type of muscle is uniue and not found in any other part of the body. It is striated and has a crossing, banding pattern that allows contraction and thus the beating of the heart. It is under the control of the autonomic nervous system
    Cardiac muscle
  69. the more fixed part of the muscle closest to tthe skeleton, which flexes, but remains stationary
  70. the part of the muscle which is the movable attachment and farthest from the skeleton.
  71. How is the pressure in massage usually directed
    from insertion to origin
  72. Muscular tissue can be stimulated by
    • Massage (hand or electric vibrator)
    • Electrical therapy current
    • Light rays (infared light, LED, UV radiation)
    • Heat rays (heating lamps or heating caps)
    • Moist heat (steamers or moderately warm steam towels)
    • Nerve impulses (through the nervous system)
    • Chemicals (certain acids and salts)
  73. occipitofrontalis; a broad muscle that covers the top of the skull
  74. The epicranius consists of what 2 parts
    occipitalis and frontalis
  75. the back of the epicranius, is the muscle that draws the scalp backward
  76. the anterior (front) portion of the epicranius
  77. a tendon connecting the occipitalis and the frontalis
    epicranial aponeurosis
  78. muscle above the ear that draws the ear upward
  79. the muscle in front of the ear that draws the ear forward
    auricularis anterior
  80. muscle behind the ear that draws the ear backward
    auricularis posterior
  81. mastication
  82. a broad muscle extending from the chest and shoulder muscles to the side of the chin
  83. the muscle located beneath the frontalis and orbicularis oculi
  84. the ring muscle of the eye socket; it closes the eyes
    orbicularis oculi
  85. the thin, flat muscle of the cheek between the upper and lower jaw that compresses the cheeks and expels air betweent he lips, as in when blowing a whistle
  86. iliac crest
    hip bone
  87. muscles produce the contour of the front and inner side of the upper arm; they lift the forearm, flex the elbow, and turn the palms outward
  88. muscles that straighten the wrist, hand, and fingers to form a straight line
  89. extensor muscles of the wrist, are involved in flexing the wrist
  90. Muscles that draw a body part, such as a finger, arm, or toe, away from the midline of the body or of an extremity
  91. Muscles that draw a body part, such as a finger, arm, or toe, inward toward the median axis of the body or of an extemity
  92. a exceptionally well-organized system that is responsible for coordinating all the many activities that are performed by the body
    nervous system
  93. Every square inch of the human body is supplied with fine fibers known as _____
  94. There are over ___ _____ nerve cells known as ____, in the body
    100 billion; nerurons
  95. The scientific study of the structure, function, and pathology of the nervous system is known as ______
  96. afferent nerves; carry impulses or messages form the sense organs to the brain, where sensations such as touch, cold, heat, sight, hearing, taste, smell, pain, and pressure are experienced
    Sensory nerves
  97. efferent nerves; carry impulses from the brain to the muscles or glands. These transmitted impulses produce movement
    motor nerves
  98. How many pairs of cranial nerves arise at the base of the brain and the brain stem
  99. The largest of the cranial nerves; It is the cheif sensory nerve of the face, and it serves as the motor nerve of the muscles that control chewing
    5th cranial nerve; trifacial or trigeminal
  100. facial nerve; the chief motor nerve of the face
    7th cranial nerve
  101. accessory nerve; type of motor nerve that controls the motion of the neck and shoulder msucles
    11th cranial nerve
  102. is often reffered to as the body's pump; it is a muscular, cone-shaped organ that keeps the blood moving within the circulatory system
  103. How many chambers and valves does the interior of the heart contain?
    4 chambers and 4 valves
  104. What sends the blood from the heart to the lungs to be oxygenated?
    pulmonary circulation
  105. What carries the oxygenated blood from the heart throughout the body and back to the heart again?
    System or general circulation
  106. The largest artery in the body
  107. small arteries that deliver blood to capillaries
  108. thin-walled blood vessels that are less elastic than arteries
  109. How many pints of blood are in the human body?
    8 to 10 pints
  110. Normal Body Temperature
    98.6 F
  111. external maxillary artery; supplies blood to the lower region of the face, mouth, and nose
    facial artery
  112. Primary functions of the lympatic system
    • To act as a defense against invading bacteria and toxins
    • To remove waste material from the body cells to the blood
    • To aid in reducing swelling, inflammation, and accumulations in the blood vessels
  113. duct glands; produce a substance that travels through small, tube-like ducts. Sweat and oil glands of the skin belong to this group
    Exocrine glands
  114. ductless glands; release secretions called hormones directly into the bloodstream, which in turn influence the welfare of the entire body
    endocrine glands
  115. Moving food along the digestive tract
  116. integument=
    natural covering
  117. brething in oxygen absorbed into the blood
  118. breathing outward; carbon dioxide is expelled from the lungs
Card Set
Ch. 6 General Anatomy and Physiology
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