1. Which body parts does OA most affect?
    • Synovial joints in the hands, hips and knees.
    • Weight bearing joints of peripheral skeleton
  2. What are some risk factors for OA?
    • Age
    • Females
    • Genetic
    • Previous damage
    • Increased bone density
    • Malalignment
    • Proprioceptive deficiencies
  3. Describe primary OA
    • DIP & PIP finger joints
    • carpometacarpal thumb joint
    • Hip, knee, metatarsophalangeal joint of big toe
    • Cervical and lumbar spine
  4. Describe secondary OA
    Occurs in any joint following injury such as a fracture (acute), occupational overuse of a joint, metabolic disease or neurological disorders (chronic)
  5. How does OA present?
    • Insidious in onset
    • Deep aching pain not well localised
    • articular stiffness, worsened by movement, relieved by rest
  6. How can you reduce the risk of OA?
    • Rest inflamed joints
    • Use the largest muscles for the job
    • Use proper movement techniques
    • Modify home gagets
  7. What lifestyle modifications and non-medical inerventions can be implemented in OA?
    • Exercise and physical therapy
    • Weight reduction greater than 10% loss
    • Ice packs (for minor inflammation)
    • Heat pack (although can lead to inflammation and odema)
  8. When can paracetamol be used in OA?
    for mild to moderate knee or hip OA
  9. When are NSAIDs used in OA?
    What if they are unresponsive to one paticualr NSAID?
    Relieves pain associated with tissue damage or inflammation

    Try a diferent one after 2-3 weeks
  10. How can adverse effects from NSAIDs be managed?
    • By using concurrent paracetamol and minimising the NSAID dose
    • Use for the lowest possible time
  11. In a patient who has a high CV risk and high GI risk what would be an appropriate therapy?
    Naproxen plus PPI
  12. In a patient with an average risk of CV problems, and a high GI risk, what therapy should be used?
    Cox-2 specific NSAID or non specific NSAID + PPI
  13. When should opioids be prescribed?
    • If paracetamol and topical NSAIDs are no good for pain relief or cannot be tolerated
    • -If joint replacement surgery is delayed or contraindicated
  14. Name four weak opioids
    • codeine
    • tramadol
    • buprenorphine
    • dextroproxyphene (bad!!)
  15. Name three strong opioids
    • morphine
    • oxycodone
    • hydromorphine
  16. What sort of dose should OA patients be started on?
    Low dose and titrate up slowly. After this, SR formulations may be commenced
  17. Name three intra-articular corticosteroids used for injection in OA
    • betamethasone
    • methylprednisolone
    • triamcinolone
  18. What do injections tend to do in OA patients?
    Which joints is it best for?
    How long do they last?
    Improve pain, rather than loss of function

    Best for knee OA

    Lasts several weeks
  19. What are three disadvantages to using injected steroids?
    increase in pain, risk of nerve damage & infection

    Progressive joint damage from repeated injections

    Risk of deterioration if patient uses the joint soon after injection
  20. How do glycosaminoglycans work?
    They are injected into the knees and increase the lubricant and shock absorption
  21. How does capsiacin cream help in OA?
    Depletes substance P which is a neurotransmitter for sensory nerves. Neurons are desensitized ro other stimulation
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