midterm 2

  1. What 2 eukaryotic Nuclear division mechanisms lead the distribution of DNA nuclei in forthcoming daughter cells?
    mitosis & meiosis
  2. Mitosis is used by multicelled organisms ____, ____, _____
    • 1)growth
    • 2)repair
    • 3)asexual reproduction by repeated divisions of somatic cells
  3. Meiosis occurs only in particular somatic cells, called ______
    • germ cells (germ line cells).
    • They divide to form gametes
  4. meiosis & cytokinesis to produce_____
  5. ____ & _____ produce gamates
    meiosis & cytokinesis
  6. whats centromere?
  7. whats apoptosis
    cell death

    * important in sculpture
  8. Centromere
    is also the region where the duplicated

       chromosome will attach to the microtubules of the spindle during nuclear division
  9. human somatic cells contain ___ chromosomes
    46 (23 pairs)
  10. do species have the same # of chroms?
  11. Define Kinetochore
    complex of proteins associated with the centromere of a chromosome during cell division, to which the microtubules of the spindle attach.

    (disk) between chrom couple
  12. Define spindle fibers
    form a protein structure that divides the genetic material in a cell.

    necessary to equally divide the chromosomes in a parental cell into two daughter cells during both types of nuclear division:
  13. Homologous chromosomes vs sister chroms
    Sister are attachable “x” (single)

    If not attached “single”= homologus (couple)
  14. Somatic cells are diploid or haploid
    Dip (2 of each type)
  15. Gametes (egg and sperm) are diploid or haploid
    Haploid (only single chrome of each)
  16. Most of a cell’s existence (about 90 percent) is spent in ___ & the smallest is in ______
    Interphase & mitosis
  17. In interphase
    Cytoplasmic componetnts double & the DNA is duplicated
  18. Interphase G1 is where
    most of the carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins for a cell's own use and for export assembled. (cell growth b4 dna duplicated)

    (begins in daughter cells)
  19. Interphase s, is where
    the cell copies its _dna_ and synthesizes proteins used in organizing the condensed chromosomes.

    (when chrom duplicated then dna is too)
  20. Interphase g2 is where
    the proteins that will drive mitosis to completion are produced.  

    (dna duplicated, cell preps for division)

    ends in parent cell)                                
  21. The four sequential stages of mitosis are:
    prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.
  22. The spindle apparatus moves the chromosomes.
    1.The spindle apparatus is composed of two sets of microtubules.

    2. Microtubules (components of the cytoskeleton) extend from the two "poles" of the cell and overlap at the cell equator.
  23. Mitosis: 4)
    1.Chromosomes become visible as rodlike units, eachconsisting of two sister chromatids.

    2. By late prophase, each chromatid has a constricted region called the centromere, on the surface of which is the kinetochore, docking site for the spindle microtubules.

    • 3.In the cytoplasm, the microtubules of the cytoskeleton break apart and begin reassembling near the nucleus.
    • 4.The nuclear envelope begins to _disintegrate_.
    • 5. The centrioles, which have duplicated by the time prophase is underway, are now moved by the microtubules to the opposite poles of the cell.
  24. Transition to metaphase (4 + 1)
    • *spindle apparatus forms
    • 1. The nuclear membrane now breaks up
    • 2. Sister chromatids go toward opposite poles.
    • 3. all chromosomes lined up in middle are called metaphase.  
    • 4.At metaphase sister chromatids are at max. condensation
  25. From Anaphase Through Telophase 2)
    1.Sister chromatids separate and move toward opposite poles.

    2. Telophase begins when the two daughter chromosomesof each original chromatid pair arrive at opposite poles.
  26. Cell Plate Formation in

    rigid cell wall, the cytoplasm of plant cells cannot just be pinched in two.
  27. Gametes are diploid or haploid
  28. Gametes are diploid or haploid
  29. G1 takes ___ hrs
  30. s phase (interphase) takes___ hrs
    10+hr (the longest)
  31. G2 takes ___ hrs
    4-5 hrs
  32. mitosis takes __ hrs
  33. weither a cell is going through mitosis or miosis its mandatory for it to go to interphase first T/F
  34. Meiosis begins with diploid (__n = ___ in humans)
    (2n = 46 in humans)

  35. 2n are 2 chroms of each type called
  36. Homologous chromosomes line up (even unequally or equally matched sex chromosomes!) during meiosis.
  37. Meiosis produces gametes that have ___ of each pair of homologous chromosomes.
  38. Unlike mitosis, meiosis has __ series of divisions;
    2 (both meiosis I and II.)
  39. meiosis I, homologous chromosomes pair and cytokinesis follows. (2)
    • 1) Each of the two daughter cells receives a haploid
    • number of chromosomes.
    • 2) Each chromosome is still duplicated.
  40. What are the 2 nuclear division mechanisms?
    • 1- mitosis
    • 2- meiosis
  41. what are the 2 cytoplasmic division mechanism:
    • 1- cell plate form
    • 2- furrowing
  42. In meiosis II, the sister chromatids of each chrom ___, cytokinesis follows resulting¬¬¬¬ in ___ haploid cells
    separate; & four
  43. End of mitosis ends with -_________
    2 diploid cells
  44. what goes on in prophase 1
    • -homo chroms pair up
    • -alleles for the same trait can vary, new combinations of genes in each chromosome can result
    • -non sister chroms cross over (not about the # of cross overs), after they don’t look identical
  45. what goes on in Late prophase?
    • -nuclear envelop starts to break down
    • -sis chrom starts to condense (thicker& shorter) (coiling)
  46. what happens in metaphase 1
    homo chroms go random in equator
  47. what happens in anaphase 1?
    • homologous chromosomes (still duplicated) separate into two haploid cells each of
    • which has a random mix of maternal and paternal
    • chromosomes.
  48. what happens in anaphase 2?
    Sister chroms seperate
  49. Gamete Formation in Animals
    meiosis to gamete formation >>> fertilization >>> growth by mitosis.
  50. In males, meiosis and gamete formation are called
  51. In male meiosis 1 there are 2 spermatocyte while the end of meiosis 2 result in
    4 spermatids
  52. female germ cell starts with 2n and ends with # after mitosis 2
    one large ovum (n) plus three polar bodies (n, small).
  53. Spermatids change in form; each develops a tail to become
    mature sperm.
  54. In females, meiosis and gamete formation are called
  55. The _____ovum is the only cell capable of being fertilized by a sperm; the polar bodies wither and die
  56. The variation present at fertilization is from three sources
    • 1.cross over from prophase 1
    • 2.random alignments at metaphase 1
    • 3.fertilization, divers gametes are produced
  57. 2 similarities Meiosis & Cytokinesis and Mitosis & Cytokinesis Compared
    • 1. interphase for both.
    • a.duplicates its DNA 
    • b.Each duplicated chromosome consists of two sister chromatids linked at the centromere.

    2.Microtubules of the spindle apparatus move the chromosomes in prescribed directions in both procedures.
  58. Differences between Meiosis & Cytokinesis and Mitosis & Cytokinesis
    Image Upload 1
  59. Prokaryotes usually reproduce by
    binary fission
  60. Genetic variation in prokaryotes can result directly through (3)
    • conjugation, (direct)
    • transduction or transformation. (indirect)
  61. Conjugation: (4)
    In many species, daughter cells also inherit one or more plasmids.

    1. A plasmid is a small, self-replicating circle of DNA with a few genes.

    2. Usually these genes confer a survival advantage such as resistance to antibiotics.

    3. Some of the plasmid genes give instructions to engage in prokaryotic conjugation.

    4. Prokaryotic conjugation is a mechanism by which a copy of a plasmid is transferred from a donor bacteria to a recipient bacteria.
  62. Who is the father of genetics?
    Greg mendel
  63. Diploid cells have ____________for each
    trait, each on a homologous chromosome.

    a pair of alleles
  64. True-breeding lineage occurs when
    offspring inherit identical alleles, generation after generation;

    non-identical alleles produce hybrid offspring.
  65. When both alleles are the same, the condition is called
    the homozygous condition;

    if the alleles differ, then it is the heterozygous condition
  66. When heterozygous, one allele is _____ (A), the other is ____(a).
    dominant & recessive
  67. Homozygous dominant =,

     homozygous recessive =

    , and heterozygous =


  68. Genotype is _____________, and phenotype are_____________
    the sum of the alleles

    traits based on the genotype and the environmental factors.
  69. Gregs theory(3)
    • 1. the meaning of complete dominance
    • 2. segregation of homo alleles
    • 3. test crossing
  70. whats the ratio for F2 generation in geno & phenotype
    Geno ratio goes from left corner across down to the right ex1:2:1 = chances (totaling 4) ¼: 2/4: 1/4

    phenol is more on the # of results X the underdog ex: 3:1

  71. Whats the Mendel's Theory of Segregation
    2n organisms inherit two alleles per trait located on pairs of homologous chromosomes.
  72. What the Theory in Modern Form
    During meiosis the two alleles segregate from each other such that each gamete will receive only one allele/trait
  73. what are Independent assortment alleles
    for 2 diff traits in gamet, random alignment in metaphase 1
  74. (explain) 9:3:3:1
    The 9:3:3:1 is the result of a dihybrid cross between two heterozygous parents.This means that you're mapping out a cross while observing two alleles. Instead of observing the genotypes, however, you are observing the phenotypes. This means that the 9:3:3:1 ratio is categorizing based on how the organisms look, not according to their letter combinations.
  75. whats incomplete dominance
    a dominant allele cannot completely mask the expression of another.

    Ex: red + white = pink
  76. Whats Codominance
    both dominant alleles are expressed in heterozygotes(for example, humans with both glycolipids designated with blood type AB
  77. whats multiple allele system
    Whenever more than two forms of alleles exist at a give locus,
  78. pleiotrophy: multiple effects of single genes
    • allele produces multiple affects : 2 or more traits
    • ex: sick cell anemia
  79. whats sick cell anemia
    • impaired oxyegen flow damages tissues
    • hemoglobin- clump red blood cells
    • -moon shape
  80. epistasis: interactions between gene pairs
    • one pair influences other pairs combined activities producing some effect on phenotype
    • ex: cancer, hair color in mamals
  81. fat can increase undesirable traits
    such as cancer
  82. autosomes
    chromes same quantity & type of both sexes ( 44 in humans + 2 sex chrome)
  83. sex chromes
    • 2 in humans determine gender
    • females XX
    • male XY
  84. SRY gene
    • located on Y chrome
    • production of testacies
  85. X chrome
    Carries for sexual traits & non sexual traits
  86. Genetic abnormality
    Mutated but it doesn’t involve medical. Not life threating
  87. Genetic disorder
    • Involve medical problems & are deadly
    • How they become: Mutated genes & changes in chrome #s
  88. Autosomal recessive ( what is affected)if a is the mutated gene vs A being mutated: aa, Aa, AA
    • aa- yes recessive // dom no
    • Aa- no but masked// dom yes (not strong enough to mask)
    • AA- no/// dom yes (lethal)
  89. Cystic fibrosis – (inherited) Recessive alleles
    Brings sticky mucus clog organs like lungs and pancreas
  90. Huntington disorder
    • Degeneration of nervous system
    • Dominate doesn’t matter when it gets the gene it will get the diseases
  91. Familial hypercholesterolemia
    • High cholesterol in blood
    • Environmental factors matter
  92. Epithelial Tissue (3)
    Made up of squamous, cuboidal,columnar
  93. Stratified epithelium consists of
    two or more layers of cells; example: skin.
  94. Connective Tissues are made of (7)
    • Soft Connective Tissues
    • Dense connective tissue
    • Cartilage
    • . Bone tissue
    • Adipose tissue
    • Blood
    • Muscle tissue
  95. Soft Connective Tissues
    • Loose connective tissue
    • Organs and surrounds blood vessels and nerves;
  96. Dense connective tissue
    could be found in tendons (muscle to bone) and ligaments (bone to bone)
  97. Cartilage
    Locations include the ends of bones, parts of the nose, external ear, and disks between vertebrae.
  98. Bone tissue
    stores mineral salts, produces blood cells, and provides spaces for its own living osteocytes
  99. Adipose tissue
    the storage of fat, which can be used as an energy reserve and as cushions to pad organs.
  100. Blood
    transports oxygen, wastes, hormones, and enzymes
  101. Muscle tissue (3)
    • Skeletal- attaches to bones
    • Smooth- lines the gut, blood vessels, and glands ( involuntary)
    • Cardiac (heart)
  102. Nervous tissue (2)
    • Central Nervous System
    • Peripheral Nervous System
  103. Homeostatic control mechanisms require three components: (3)
    • a. Sensory receptors detect specific changes in the
    • environment.
    • b. Integrators (brain and spinal cord) act to direct impulses
    • to the place where a response can be made.
    • c. Effectors (muscles and glands) perform the
    • appropriate response.
  104. Negative vs positive feedback
    • Negative detecting a change in theinternal environment that brings about a response
    • Positive intensify the original signal; childbirth is an example
Card Set
midterm 2
midterm 2