What do each of the letters in SPOCA stand for?
What is the predicator?
The verb phrase around which the clause is built
What is the subject?
- The 'doer' or main protagonist of the activity
- Described by the predicator
What is the object?
- The element experiencing the direct action described by the predicator
- 'I have eaten nothing'
What is the complement?
- Element in direct relationship to the subject or object.
- Normally connected by the predicator
What is the adjunct?
- Answers 'who, what, when, why, where, how' questions
- An element providing information about the timing, manner etc of the predicator
SPOCA this sentence:
I shove him up against the wall
- I = Subject
- shove = Predicator
- him = Object
- up against the wall = Adjunct
What are the three types of sentences?
What is grammar?
A set of rules that creates a pattern that makes up the anatomy of language
Name 3 examples of incorrect language
- Double negative
- Double superlatives
- Split infinitives
What is a split infinitive?
- When an adverb is put between 'to' and 'verb'
- May lead to ambiguity if used
eg. To boldy go...
What is the rank scale of grammar?
What are the modern English open word classes?
What are the modern English closed word classes?
What is the criteria for deciding which class a word belongs to? (3)
What is notional criteria?
Based on nouns that denote a person, place or thing
What is formal criteria?
Possible inflections such as in 'cook, cooks, cooking, cooked'
What is distributional criteria?
The environment in which the word appears such as 'the cook is in the kitchen'
Can words change classes?
- put a letter in the post
- post a letter
What are the conditions for determining a phrase?
- Omission (if words can be omitted and leave a sentence)
- Replacement (if words can be replaced)
- Question (if words can be elicited by a WH question)
- Movement (if they can be moved around in a sentence)
What is a clause?
A string of words which expresses a proposition and typically consists of at least a subject and verb
What are minor clauses?
- Structures which lack a predictor element due to ellipsis
- eg. In your pocket
What are compound sentences?
Two or more clauses that are in a symmetrical relationship and tend to be linked with coordinating conjunctions
What is a complex sentence?
Two or more clauses in an asymmetrical relationship
What is deixis?
- The location and identification of a person object (etc) being talked about, or referred to, in relation to the spatiotemporal context created and sustained by the act of utterance and the participation in it of a single speaker and at least one addressee
- Involves a distinction between what is perceived as proximal to the deictic centre and what is 'distal'
Why is dexis termed as 'egocentric'?
Because the speaker/narrator is the centre of orientation
What is a finite clause?
- A clause a finite verb, which can be main or subordinate.
- Finite verb forms show tense, person, number
What is a non-finite clause?
- Usually a dependent clause whose main verb is non-finite.
- Does not show tense, person, place.
- Infinitive verbs with and without 'to' or -ing or -ed forms
What are the different types of deixis?
What are the features of place deixis?
- Locative expressions
- Deictic verbs (come, bring)
- Prepositional phrases
- Pronouns tell you whether it is towards or away from the place
What are the features of time deixis?
- Items such as 'now' 'then' 'today' 'yesterday'
- Present and past tense of full verbs
What are the features of person deixis?
- Personal pronouns
- Generic nouns
What is deictic projection?
The construction of a subjective position within an imagined situational context in reference to which the deictic expressions used in the text make sense
Deixis builds up distance/time in a scene relative to the centre
What is ideology?
- The matrix of beliefs we use to comprehend the world and the value systems through and by which we interact with society
- Different POVs will have different ideologies
What is modality?
- A grammatical system that allows us to attach expressions of belief, attitude and obligation to what we write and say.
- Used to position the first person both in relation to what they are saying and who they are addressing
- Sentence adverbs express the modality of the whole sentence or clause in that they convey an attitude towards what one is clarifying
What is epistemic modality?
The varying degrees of certainty we have about the propositions we express
What is deontic modality?
- The sorts of commitments or obligations that we attach to our utterances
- e.g. Saying thank you
What are category A narratives?
Narrated in the first person by a character in the story
What are category B narratives?
Third person, narrated by a character not in the story
What is positive shading?
- The most common shading.
- A narrative modality where the narrator's desires, obligations and opinions are foregrounded.
What is negative shading?
- Narrative modality where a 'bewildered' narrator relies on external signals and appearances to sustain description
- Words of estrangements
- Often characterises gothic writing
- Epistemic modality is common here
What is neutral shading?
- Characterised by a complete absence of modality
- Uncommon. Easier to find in poetry
Does one passage of text = one type of shading?
No, shading can vary in a passage
How would you test/find the subject in a clause?
It should answer the 'who' or 'what' placed in front of the verb
How would you test/find the complement in a clause?
It should answer the question 'who' or 'what' placed after the verb
How would you test/find the adjunct in a clause?
It should answer the question 'how' 'when' 'where' 'why' placed after the verb
What is the imperative form usually used for?
Requests and commands such as 'Mind your head'
What is the effect of having two independent sentences of one clause next to each other?
Single clauses increase the speed and urgency of a narrative and help to deliver tension
What is the effect of using a compound sentence?
Creates symmetry in the sentence, popular with nursery rhymes
What is the idea of double negative based on?
- The mathematical principle that two negatives added together results in a positive
- (shows the overlap of educational branches)
What is restricted omniscient narrator?
- A third person narrator external to the action of the story.
- Comes across as unable or reluctant to delve into the thoughts and feelings of characters
What were the four points that narratologist Boris Uspensky put forward for the study of POV?
- POV on the ideological plane
- POV on the temporal plane
- POV on the spatial plane
- POV on the psychological plane
What is POV on the ideological plane?
- POV on the ideological plane refers to the way in which a text mediates a set of particular ideological beliefs through one character, narrator or author.
- The concept of ideological POV is a tempting analytical tool but needs to be treated with caution because it is simply too wide to have much explanatory power.
What is POV on the ideological plane?
- Temporal POV covers any manipulation of time sequence in narrative and explains how certain events might be relayed as remote or distant, others as immediate or imminent
- Temporal POV is less about focalisation and viewpoint and more about narrative structure as it encompasses structural segments and sequential progression of the time line of a narrative
What is POV on the spatial and psychological plane?
- Spatial POV is about the narrative’s ‘camera’ (what the narrative shows/sees) and is a device which has palpable grammatical exponents in deixis and in locative expressions
- This suggests there are grounds for subsuming the category of spatial POV into the broader category of psychological POV