Anatomy & Physiology 3

  1. what are the 8 components of the respiratory system?
    the nose, pharnyx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs with their alveoli, diaphram, and muscles surrounding the ribs
  2. where is respiratory controlled?
    in the respiratory control center of the medulla oblongata
  3. respiratory system function
    supplies oxygen to the body and eliminates carbon dioxide
  4. what is external respiration
    the exchange of gases between the atmosphere and the blood through the alveoli
  5. what is internal respiration
    the exchange of gases between the blood and the body cells
  6. what do the passageways between the nasal cavities and alveoli do?
    bring gases to and from the lungs
  7. how do the upper passageways help with respiration? how?
    they make incoming air warm, moist, and filter it. the cilia lining traps debris and keeps foreign substances out of the lungs
  8. what happens to the diaphragm and lungs during inhalation? exhalation?
    the diaphragm contracts to enlarge the thoracic cavity

    the diaphragm relaxes so that the lungs can recoil
  9. what is most of the oxygen in blood bound to? what happens when the concentration of oxygen drops in the tissues?
    • hemoglobin in RBCs
    • oxygen is released from the hemoglobin
  10. where in the blood is carbon dioxide carried? what is most of it converted to?
    in solution or bound to blood proteins

    most is converted to bicarbonate ions
  11. what converts carbon dioxide into bicarbonate ions? where?
    carbonic anhydrase in red blood cells
  12. why is carbon dioxide a regulator of blood PH?
    because the rxn that turns carbon dioxide into bicarbonate ions releases hydrogen ions
  13. what are the 8 components of the alimentary canal/digestive tube?
    the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and anus
  14. what are the 3 accessory organs of digestion?
    liver, pancreas, and gall bladder
  15. describe the digestion process that happens at the ingestion of the mouth
    when food is ingested it is mechanically broken down by the teeth and tongue (mastication). There are 3 pairs of salivary glands that produce saliva, which lubricates and dilutes the chewed food.
  16. what is the function of saliva? what forms?
    • it begins the breakdown (digestion) of complex carbohydrates using an enzyme called amylase. 
    • it forms a ball of food (bolus)
  17. how does food get from the mouth to the stomach?
    constrictive muscles of the pharynx force the food into the esophagus and down to the stomach 

    this is swallowing
  18. what are the 4 main layers of the digestive tract? 

    outer to inner
    • serous layer
    • muscular layer
    • submucous layer
    • mucous membrane
  19. describe the digestion process that happens once food gets to the stomach
    when food gets to the stomach gastric glands produce hydrochloric acid to break down foods. the stomach muscles churn and mix the bolus of food, turning them into chyme.
  20. aside from making chyme, what is another function of the stomach
    stores food and regulates the movement of food into the small intestines
  21. function of the small intestines
    digestion and absorption of food
  22. how is food digested in the small intestine? and how is it neutralized from the stomach?
    enzymes from the small intestine and bile from the liver further break down the food. Water also comes from the pancreas to dilute the chyme and bicarbonate ions to neutralize the acid from the stomach.
  23. what are the 3 major regions of the small intestine?
    duodenum, jejunum, and ileum
  24. how are nutrients in the small intestine absorbed? what nutrients go where?
    they are absorbed through the intestine walls

    • -amino acids and simple sugars from proteins are carbohydrates are directly absorbed into the blood 
    • -fats are mainly absorbed into the lacteals, then go to the blood stream
  25. what are lacteals?
    the lymphatic vessels of the small intestine that absorb digested fats.
  26. how do nutrients travel from the small intestine to the liver?
    after absorption into the blood through the small intestine walls, they travel to the liver by way of the hepatic portal vein
  27. what is the function of the liver?
    to decontaminate chemicals/nutrients and metabolize drugs
  28. purpose of villi on the intestinal wall
    create surface area
  29. function of the large intestine
    reabsorbs water and stores and eliminates undigested food
  30. what kind of important bacteria are found in the large intestines
    intestinal flora
  31. what are the 5 portions of the large intestine?
    the ascending colon, the transverse colon, the descending colon, the sigmoid colon, and the rectum
  32. what is the opening of defecation?
    the ANUSSSSSS!
  33. what 6 components make up the urinary system?
    two kidneys, 2 ureters, a urinary bladder, and the urethra
  34. function of the kidneys
    filter the blood
  35. function of the ureters
    stores urine before urination and transport urine to the bladder
  36. what are the functional units of the kidneys? describe them
    the nephrons

    -they are small coiled tubes that filter waste out of the blood that is brought to the kidney by the renal artery
  37. where in the nephron does the filtration process actually happen? how?
    in the glomerulus in the Bowman's capsule of the nephron

    it happens under the force of blood pressure
  38. what process happens when the glomerular filtrate passes through the nephron
    components needed by the body (water, glucose, and ions) leave the nephron by diffusion and reenter the blood.

    the water is reabsorbed by the nephron tubules
  39. what is the final product of the filtrate that has completely passed through the nephron in the kidney
  40. what are the 2 functions of the ovaries and testes
    production of gametes (sex cells) and production of hormones
  41. what kind of hormones control the ovaries and testes? from where? how are male and female reproductive cycles different?
    tropic hormones from the pituitary glands

    male cycles are continuous, female cycles are cyclic
  42. where in the testes are spermatozoa developed?
    in the seminiferous tubules
  43. where in the testes is testosterone produced?
    in the interstitial cells between the seminiferous tubules
  44. what is the function of testosterone
    it influences sperm cell development and produces the secondary sex characteristics such as increased facial hair, body hair, and voice deepening
  45. after sperm are produced, where are they stored?
    in the epididymis of each testes
  46. what is the pathway of ejaculation?
    vas deferens, ejaculatory duct, and urethra
  47. what male reproductive glands produce semen (3)
    seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and bulbourethral (cowper's) glands
  48. what controls testicular activity?
    two anterior pituitary hormones

    • FSH- regulates sperm production 
    • ICSH (interstitial cell stimulating hormone) or LH- stimulates the interstitial cells to produce testosterone
  49. what hormone influences eggs to ripen in the reproductive system?
    FSH from the anterior pituitary
  50. where in the female reproductive system do eggs ripen
    in the ovarian follicles of the ovary
  51. where is estrogen produced? function?
    the ovarian follicles produce estrogen

    initiates the preparation of the endometrium of the uterus for pregnancy
  52. what day of the cycle does ovulation begin approx? how? what happens during ovulation?
    at day 14 LH is released from the pituitary, which stimulates ovulation and the conversion of the follicle (holding the now mature egg) corpus luteum
  53. what is the function of corpus luteum
    secretes the hormone progesterone and estrogen, which further stimulate the development of the endometrium
  54. what happens to the corpus luteum if fertilization occurs? if it doesn't?
    does- the corpus luteum remains functional 

    doesn't- the corpus luteum degenerates and menstruation begins
  55. what happens to the egg when ovulation is completed?
    if there was fertilization in the corpus luteum, the egg is swept into the oviduct, travels to the uterus, and implants itself into its endometrium 

    if no fertilization happened, then the egg is moved into the Fallopian tubes
  56. where is placenta created? how?
    in the uterus 

    formed by maternal and embryonic tissues
  57. function of the placenta
    the placenta nourishes the embryo, produces hormones during pregnancy to maintain the endometrium, and prepares the mammary glands for breast milk production
Card Set
Anatomy & Physiology 3
Respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems