Week 1 + 2 (intro+history)

  1. What is morphology?
    • The study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.
    • It analyzes the structure of words and parts of words, such as stems, root words, prefixes, and suffixes.
  2. What is phonology?
    The study of the sound system of languages.
  3. What is phraseology?
    A particular mode of expression, especially one characteristic of a particular speaker or subject area.
  4. What is discourse?
    • The way in which words and sentences are used in everyday situations.
    • The meaning of language in context
  5. What is eye dialect?
    • Changing the spelling of words by using the conventions of orthography to mimic dialect 
    • eg. what = wot
  6. What is orthography?
    The conventional spelling of language
  7. What is stylistics?
    • A method of textual interpretation in which primacy of place is assigned to language 
    • Linguistic features do not themselves constitute a text's meaning... it serves to ground a stylistic interpretation and explain why certain types of meaning are possible
  8. What are the three Rs of linguistic analysis?
    • Rigorous - being explicit in analysis 
    • Retrievable - using agreed terms and criteria 
    • Replicable - providing enough info so that others can verify the analysis
  9. What is foregrounding?
    A technique for directing your audience to focussing on certain features. 

    • An aspect of the test which deviates from the linguistic norm (changing the way text appears or is written) 
    • An aspect of the text which is brought to the fore through repetition or parallelism
  10. Give an example of foregrounding
    • We expect nouns to have adjectives and when they repeatedly do not this is foregrounded because it deviates from our expectations.
    • This is from Hemingway's The Old Man. 
  11. What is internal foregrounding?
    A deviation within a deviation in a text. 

    eg. Hemingway suddenly using loads of adjectives
  12. What are Jakobson's functions of language?
    • Referential function 
    • Emotive function 
    • Conative function
    • Phatic function 
    • Metalingual function
    • Poetic function
  13. What is Jakobson's referential function?
    where language is orientated towards the context
  14. What is Jakobson's Emotive function?
    The language is orientated towards the addresser
  15. What is Jakobson's conative function?
    Language orientated towards the addressee
  16. What is Jakobson's phatic function?
    Language that establishes, prolongs or discontinues communication

    • 'You alright?'
    • 'Yeah, you alright?'
    • ^ this acts as being social not real communication
  17. What is Jakobson's metalingual function?
    Establishes mutual agreement on the code 

    (trying to establish agreement)
  18. What is Jakobson's poetic function?
    Focus is on the message for its own sake 

    (language choices for aesthetic effect)
  19. Is there a literary language?
    • No but there is a literariness of language (Jakobson) 
    • The claim that there is a literary language is a term that attempts to exclude stylistitians from appreciating literature
  20. Name different types of discourse
    Journalism, conversation, song writing, advertising
  21. What is the purpose of stylistics?
    To explore the creativity in language and how it is used
  22. What are the levels of language in order?
    • Phonology
    • Graphology 
    • Morphology
    • Syntax
    • Lexical analysis 
    • Semantics
    • Discourse analysis
  23. Do the different levels of language interact with one another?
    Yes they are interconnected and depend on one another
  24. List units of grammar from largest to smallest
    • Sentence
    • Clause 
    • Phrase
    • Word
    • Morpheme
  25. Who was Roman Jakobson?
    • A Russian/American linguist.
    • He proposed the theory of foregrounding and put forward his functions of language
  26. Why is foregrounding used?
    For literary-aesthetic purposes

    it works on any level of language and is designed to draw attention to itself
  27. What is a common example of poetic function (Jakobson)?
    Using terms such as 'passing away' for death
  28. What is the gradability of adjectives?
    Adjectives can be graded on by modifying the degree of intensity of the quality. An adjective is only gradable if 'very' makes sense in front of it. Gradable adjectives are able to compare things

    eg. 'bright light' becomes 'very bright light'
  29. What is a classifying adjective?
    An adjective that doesn't make sense if 'very' is put in front of it. 

    eg. the adjective 'former' can't be 'very former' making it a classifying adjective
  30. What is the difference between adjectives and adverbs?
    Adjectives describe qualities and adverbs describe circumstances
  31. What is tautology?
    Saying the same thing twice.
  32. When was the Roger Fowler vs. F.W. Bateson debate and what was it about?
    • 1960s
    • about the usefulness of stylistics as an academic activity. 
    • stylistics vs. traditional literary analysis
  33. Who was Ferdinand de Saussure?
    • A Swiss linguist dubbed the 'father of modern linguistics'.
    • he developed structural linguistics (langue, parole)
  34. What was the structure of the Fowler-Bateson debate?
    • A critic called Vender reviewed Fowler's work unfavourably.
    • Then Fowler defended his work.
    • Then Bateson disagreed with Fowler.
    • Then Fowler responded to Bateson. 
    • Finally, Bateson responded to Fowler.
  35. What was the name of Roger Fowler's essay? (this is the essay that started the Fowler vs Bateson debate)
    'Essays on Style and Language' (1966)
  36. What was Bateson's 1st response in the Fowler vs. Bateson debate?
    • Linguistics is useful but not beyond an 'elementary level' and that Fowler's idea that the study of language is necessary to the study of literature is 'simply not true'
    • Literary and non-literary language cannot overlap
  37. What was Fowler's response to Vendler's criticism?
    Fowler stated her comments were too 'general' and she was too 'hostile' and that she should not disregard linguistics because it is a developing school
  38. What was Fowler's response to Bateson?
    Fowler said that Bateson's attempt to remove linguistics as a discipline of relevance to literature was 'cunning' and that he was 'motivated by a set of prejudices'
  39. What was Bateson's 2nd response in the Fowler vs. Bateson debate?
    • Bateson said that Fowles is unable to provide examples of when linguistic analysis would be useful 
    • Bateson said that there should be no language problems for an English reader that the context of the passage will not solve
  40. What is the aim of stylistics?
    To investigate literary style and to look for its origins in all forms of discourse
  41. What is a schema? pl. schemata
    • A schema is a cognitive framework or concept that helps organise and interpret information. It varies from person to person (mental images) 
    • Certain types of language are used in different situations and helps us to predict what is likely to happen
  42. How does literature change the way in which we see the world?
    It alters people's schema making some pieces 'schema changing' and other pieces 'schema reinforcing'
  43. What is the prototype theory?
    A method of categorising literary texts into distinct groups suggested by Rosch in 1975

    Categories are formed through experience and based on one prototype. Focusses on shared features rather than unique.
  44. What did Chomsky have to say about the creative principle in language?
    • In 1966
    • Creativity distinguishes human beings from animals and machines
    • Creativity is separate from mechanical principles and enables humans to respond in free and diverse expression
  45. Name 2 examples of linguistic features that show creativity
    • Pun 
    • Alliteration
  46. Who commonly uses linguistic creativity?
    Comedians, advertisers, comic writers
  47. What is backchanneling?
    Utterances which show engagement to what the other person is saying 

    eg. 'yeah' 'oh'
Card Set
Week 1 + 2 (intro+history)
Introduction and history into linguistics