What is morphology?
- The study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.
- It analyzes the structure of words and parts of words, such as stems, root words, prefixes, and suffixes.
What is phonology?
The study of the sound system of languages.
What is phraseology?
A particular mode of expression, especially one characteristic of a particular speaker or subject area.
What is discourse?
- The way in which words and sentences are used in everyday situations.
- The meaning of language in context
What is eye dialect?
- Changing the spelling of words by using the conventions of orthography to mimic dialect
- eg. what = wot
What is orthography?
The conventional spelling of language
What is stylistics?
- A method of textual interpretation in which primacy of place is assigned to language
- Linguistic features do not themselves constitute a text's meaning... it serves to ground a stylistic interpretation and explain why certain types of meaning are possible
What are the three Rs of linguistic analysis?
- Rigorous - being explicit in analysis
- Retrievable - using agreed terms and criteria
- Replicable - providing enough info so that others can verify the analysis
What is foregrounding?
A technique for directing your audience to focussing on certain features.
- An aspect of the test which deviates from the linguistic norm (changing the way text appears or is written)
- An aspect of the text which is brought to the fore through repetition or parallelism
Give an example of foregrounding
- We expect nouns to have adjectives and when they repeatedly do not this is foregrounded because it deviates from our expectations.
- This is from Hemingway's The Old Man.
What is internal foregrounding?
A deviation within a deviation in a text.
eg. Hemingway suddenly using loads of adjectives
What are Jakobson's functions of language?
- Referential function
- Emotive function
- Conative function
- Phatic function
- Metalingual function
- Poetic function
What is Jakobson's referential function?
where language is orientated towards the context
What is Jakobson's Emotive function?
The language is orientated towards the addresser
What is Jakobson's conative function?
Language orientated towards the addressee
What is Jakobson's phatic function?
Language that establishes, prolongs or discontinues communication
- 'You alright?'
- 'Yeah, you alright?'
- ^ this acts as being social not real communication
What is Jakobson's metalingual function?
Establishes mutual agreement on the code
(trying to establish agreement)
What is Jakobson's poetic function?
Focus is on the message for its own sake
(language choices for aesthetic effect)
Is there a literary language?
- No but there is a literariness of language (Jakobson)
- The claim that there is a literary language is a term that attempts to exclude stylistitians from appreciating literature
Name different types of discourse
Journalism, conversation, song writing, advertising
What is the purpose of stylistics?
To explore the creativity in language and how it is used
What are the levels of language in order?
- Lexical analysis
- Discourse analysis
Do the different levels of language interact with one another?
Yes they are interconnected and depend on one another
List units of grammar from largest to smallest
Who was Roman Jakobson?
- A Russian/American linguist.
- He proposed the theory of foregrounding and put forward his functions of language
Why is foregrounding used?
For literary-aesthetic purposes
it works on any level of language and is designed to draw attention to itself
What is a common example of poetic function (Jakobson)?
Using terms such as 'passing away' for death
What is the gradability of adjectives?
Adjectives can be graded on by modifying the degree of intensity of the quality. An adjective is only gradable if 'very' makes sense in front of it. Gradable adjectives are able to compare things
eg. 'bright light' becomes 'very bright light'
What is a classifying adjective?
An adjective that doesn't make sense if 'very' is put in front of it.
eg. the adjective 'former' can't be 'very former' making it a classifying adjective
What is the difference between adjectives and adverbs?
Adjectives describe qualities and adverbs describe circumstances
What is tautology?
Saying the same thing twice.
When was the Roger Fowler vs. F.W. Bateson debate and what was it about?
- about the usefulness of stylistics as an academic activity.
- stylistics vs. traditional literary analysis
Who was Ferdinand de Saussure?
- A Swiss linguist dubbed the 'father of modern linguistics'.
- he developed structural linguistics (langue, parole)
What was the structure of the Fowler-Bateson debate?
- A critic called Vender reviewed Fowler's work unfavourably.
- Then Fowler defended his work.
- Then Bateson disagreed with Fowler.
- Then Fowler responded to Bateson.
- Finally, Bateson responded to Fowler.
What was the name of Roger Fowler's essay? (this is the essay that started the Fowler vs Bateson debate)
'Essays on Style and Language' (1966)
What was Bateson's 1st response in the Fowler vs. Bateson debate?
- Linguistics is useful but not beyond an 'elementary level' and that Fowler's idea that the study of language is necessary to the study of literature is 'simply not true'
- Literary and non-literary language cannot overlap
What was Fowler's response to Vendler's criticism?
Fowler stated her comments were too 'general' and she was too 'hostile' and that she should not disregard linguistics because it is a developing school
What was Fowler's response to Bateson?
Fowler said that Bateson's attempt to remove linguistics as a discipline of relevance to literature was 'cunning' and that he was 'motivated by a set of prejudices'
What was Bateson's 2nd response in the Fowler vs. Bateson debate?
- Bateson said that Fowles is unable to provide examples of when linguistic analysis would be useful
- Bateson said that there should be no language problems for an English reader that the context of the passage will not solve
What is the aim of stylistics?
To investigate literary style and to look for its origins in all forms of discourse
What is a schema? pl. schemata
- A schema is a cognitive framework or concept that helps organise and interpret information. It varies from person to person (mental images)
- Certain types of language are used in different situations and helps us to predict what is likely to happen
How does literature change the way in which we see the world?
It alters people's schema making some pieces 'schema changing' and other pieces 'schema reinforcing'
What is the prototype theory?
A method of categorising literary texts into distinct groups suggested by Rosch in 1975
Categories are formed through experience and based on one prototype. Focusses on shared features rather than unique.
What did Chomsky have to say about the creative principle in language?
- In 1966
- Creativity distinguishes human beings from animals and machines
- Creativity is separate from mechanical principles and enables humans to respond in free and diverse expression
Name 2 examples of linguistic features that show creativity
Who commonly uses linguistic creativity?
Comedians, advertisers, comic writers
What is backchanneling?
Utterances which show engagement to what the other person is saying
eg. 'yeah' 'oh'