What are the monoamines?
Serotonin, Dopamine, Norepinephrine
What does MAOI stand for?
Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor
What is monoamine oxidase?
The proteins that break down monoamines
Where is monoamine oxidase found?
The brain (in the synapse) and the liver
What does SSRI stand for?
Selective Serotonin reuptake inhibitor
What are the side effects of SSRI's?
Least amount of side effects
- 1. sexual dysfunction
- 2. sleep disturbances
- 3. Stomach problems
- 4. hallucinations (auditory and visual)
- 5. confusion
What does TCA stand for?
What is the function of SSRI's?
Block the reuptake of serotonin in the axon terminal by blocking serotonin receptors on the axon
Serotonin is in the synapse for longer and is more active
Serotonin can leave the terminal but cannot come back
What is the function of TCA's?
TCA's prevent the re-uptake of monoamines by blocking specific receptors in the axon terminal
What is tyramine?
chemical compound found in dairy, meat, bread, alcohol, chocolate, etc.
What contributes to MAOI toxicity?
MAO's break down tyramine in the liver
When MAOI's are introduced, they decrease the amount of MAO's in the liver significantly.
Less MAO's = more tyramine in the liver
Too much tyramine is toxic
What are the symptoms of tyramine poisoning?
- High blood pressure
What are the side effects of TCA's?
- Memory deficits
- Cardiotoxicity (mostly high blood pressure)
- Motor impairment
What does ECT stand for?
How does ECT work?
Electrodes send electrical impulses through the frontal cortex (bilaterally or unilaterally) to improve electrical firing of the neurons
Decreases depression but can cause memory loss if performed more than three times a week
What are the symptoms of MDD
- 5 or more symptoms for at least two weeks
- must include depressed mood or feelings of worthliness
- Depressed mood
- Low self esteem
- Psychomotor agitation/retardation
- Cognitie deficits
- Change in sleeping patterns
- Thoughts of suicide
- Weight change
What are the manic symptoms?
- Thoughts of grandour
- Decreased need for sleep
- Racing thoughts
- Increased goal activity
- Excessive involvement in pleasurable activities
What is a concordance rate?
Type of prevalence rate
proportion of subjects who match each other in symptomology
What is the concordance rate for monozygotic twins with MDD?
What is the concordance rate of dizygotic twins with MDD?
What is the concordance rate of monozygotic twins with dysthymia?
What is the concordance rate for dizygotic twins with dysthymia?
What is the concordance rate for monozygotic twins with bipolar disorder?
What is the concordance rate for dizygotic twins with bipolar disorder?
What is the conclusion in the studies of concordance rates with mono and dizygotic twins?
The higher the percentage of DNA shared, the more likely the chance that they will both get the disorder
What is the pathology of MDD?
- Decreased grey matter
- Decreased frontal lobe activity
- Damage to hippocampus/hypothalamus/amygdala
What role does the HPA axis play in MDD?
The HPa axis is especially sensitive, and negative feedback loop does not stop when it is supposed to so it eats away at the hypothalamus
What is the function of all antidepressants?
- Decreased HPA activity
- Increase protein to increase health of hippocampus neurons
- Increase MA activity
What is the function of MAOI's?
- Monamines naturally reside in the synapse
- MAO's breakdown MA's so that they are not able to travel to the dendritic terminals
- MAOI's breakdown MAO's to prevent them from harming MA's
What are the negative symptoms of schizophrenia?
- Emotional disregulation
- flat affect (lack of facial expression)
- Impaired motivationAlogia (reduced speech)
- Social withdrawal
What are the positive symptoms of schizophrenia?
- Disorganized Inappropriate behavior
- cognitive impairment
- Disordered speaking/thinking
What is a psychoactive drug?
Drug that effects mood, psychology, cognition, behavior, perception in some way
Directly effect synapse transmission
Ethanol is soluble in both:
Water and fat
What are the acute psychological effects of alcohol?
- cognitive deficits
- decreased emotional control
- decreased sleep quality
- association with crime/accidents/violence
What are the acute biological effects of alcohol?
- CNS depressant
- Decreased respiration
- Pain reliever
- motor deficits
- dilates superficial blood vessels (lowers body temperature)
How does alcohol work on the neuronal level?
Alcohol blocks glutamate cells from leaving the axon and attaching to the dendrite
Alcohol is glutamate ____
What does an agonist do?
increases synaptic transmission
What does an antagonist do?
Slows down synaptic transmission
What are the long term effects of alcohol pertaining to tolerance?
- Continuously drinking means that glutamate cannot travel through the synapse
- Dendritic terminals make more glutamate receptors in order to receive all glutamate that escapes the alcohol and comes through the synapse
- The person drinks more to get drunk
- The neurons cannot fire because there is too much alcohol in the body that is blocking glutamate from entering the synapse
- Dendrites continue to make more receptors in response
When there is no alcohol in the body the neurons are too active, which leads to the symptoms of withdrawal
What are the withdrawal effects of alcoholism?
- Foggy Thinking
What are the three stages of liver damage?
1. Fatty liver- due to triglyceride over accumulation (causes inflammation in the liver cells)
- 2. Alcoholic hepatitis- acetaldehyde over accumulation
- 3. Liver cirhosis- massive cell death in the liver due to over accumulation of acetaldehyde and triglycerides
What are the long term health risks associated with alcoholism?
- Liver damage
- Vitamin B deficiencies (can cause brain damage)
What is naloxone?
- Opioid antagonist
- taken with alcohol
- reacts with the alcohol to make the person sick and associate negatively with alcohol
- must be taken consistently
What is antabuse?
- Acetaldehyde dehydrogenase antagonist
- makes you sick by stopping the creation of acetic acid
What is the issue with treatment drugs for alcoholism?
They must be taken continuously so they require cooperation from the person taking them in order to be effective