Chapter 25 Review

  1. How do fats enter lacteals? In what form?
    through mycel and become chylomicron
  2. What increases surface area in the small intestine?
    microvilli, villi, circular folds (plicae circularis)
  3. What is an emulsifier? Give an example?
    prepares fats for digestion, bile salts, bile acid, lecithin
  4. Know the enzymes
    pepsin acts in stomach, lingual lipase acts in stomach, trypsin protein in SI, salivary amylase act in mouth
  5. Is enterokinase an enzyme that digests nutrients?
    no, its only function it to activate trypsinogen to trypsin
  6. Where does lingual lipase act?  What activates it?
    acts in stomach, activates by HCI
  7. What’s the difference between mesentery and mesocolon?
    Mesocolon is just mesentery of the colon
  8. Lysozyme
    an enzyme that kills bacteria
  9. Immunoglobin A
    an antibacterial antibody
  10. What is the enterogastric reflex?  What phase is it involved in?  What does enteromean?
    slows gastric motility and secretion
  11. Know the cells that secrete digestive enzymes. Give one example (in stomach).
    chief cells secrete gastric lipase and pepsinogen
  12. Is there a similarity between gastric pits and intestinal crypts?
    yes, both give into lamina propia
  13. What kind of disease is periodontitis?  Is gingivitis in the same class?
    periodental is around teeth, yes
  14. What’s one function of HCl in the stomach?
    activate pepsinogen (pepsin)
  15. What kind of epithelium does the esophagus have?
    stratified squamous non keratinized
  16. What enzymes are present in saliva?  Does digestion of protein start in the mouth?
    amylase, no
  17. What does absorption mean?
    assimulating nutrients
  18. What does defecation mean?
    to poop
  19. What’s the role of the sphincter of Oddi?
    control amount of bile and pancreatic juice into duodenum
  20. Which enzyme activates trypsin?  Then what does trypsin do?
    enterokinase activates trypsin, trypsin activates chymotrypsin and carboxypeptidase
  21. Name three disaccharides that are digested by the small intestine.
    lactose, maltose, sucrose
  22. What does CCK stand for?  What does it do?
    cholecystokinin, cause contraction of gallbladder
  23. What does LES stand for?  What’s another name for it?
    lower esophageal sphincter, cardiac sphincter
  24. What is Intrinsic Factor?  Why is it needed and where is it produced?
    produced by parietal cells in stomach, needed to absorb all vitamin B
  25. Where are villi present?  Why are they called the unit of absorption?
    SI, because they have capillaries and lacteals
  26. How are nutrients absorbed in the small intestine?  Where does fat go?  How aboutvitamins and minerals and amino acids
    fat soluble vitamins go to lacteal, everything else goes to capillaries
  27. What does the uvula do?  How about the epiglottis?
    keeps food in mouth, so food doesnt go to nasal cavity, epiglottis protects airway when swallowing
  28. Know the anatomical features of the colon. Where are plicae circularis located?
    colon doesnt have plicae circularis, only SI
  29. Most people cant digest lactose
  30. Know the SGLT, and what it co-transports with the Na.
    sodium glucose transport proteins, it transports glucose
  31. Where does most of the absorption of water occur?
    small intestine, mostly ileum
  32. What is one feature of the small intestine epithelium that makes it increase its surface area on each cell?
  33. What is peristalsis? How about segmentation waves
    migrating motor waves from esophagus, segmentation waves go back and forth does not move
  34. Infant cell drinking and why is that important?
    pinocytosis to absorb antibodies fromthe mother that’s so the antibodies are not broken down and used whole.
  35. What bacteria normally live in the intestines?
    e coli
  36. Know which vitamins are water and fat soluble
    ADEK fat soluble/ B,C water soluble
  37. What’s the substance in the body that’s stronger than bone?  Is it living tissue?
    enamel, not living
  38. Where does bile get its pigment from?
  39. What happens to blood when the stomach is secreting acid?
    alkaline tide
Card Set
Chapter 25 Review