Criminology part 2

  1. Who came up with White Collar Criminality
  2. different between street crime and WC crime
    • offenders have legitimate access to their targets
    • spatial separations from victims
    • the superficial of legitimacy
  3. WC crime and differential assosciation
    • corporate culture
    • normalization of deviance/crime
    • pressure to be a team player
  4. WC crime and labeling theory
    • WC lack a criminal identity 
    • responsibility for WC offenses diffuse throughout organization /bureaucratic settings
    • Often able to avoid stigmatized labels
  5. WC crime and functionalism
    • lack of external and institutional control over behavior
    • creates contexts that are "organized for crime/ deviance"
    • Anomie in the hyper-competitive corporate world and obsessions w/ profits
  6. Conditions of hate speech regulation
    • must be content neutral
    • must not be overly vague
  7. Hate crimes
    crimes motivated by hatred towards the victim's race, religion, ancestry, sex. orientation
  8. majority of hate crimes are
    • classified as violent
    • committed on basis of race and ethnicity
    • rarely prosecuted
  9. Hate crime and conflict theory
    • hate speech is a form of discrimination against subordinate groups
    • contributes to ongoing oppression/marginalization
  10. when are warrantless searches allowed
    • incident to arrest: immediate vicinity and arrestee
    • vehicles (w/ probable cause)
    • stop and frisk
  11. Max Weber and legal Rationality
    • legal systems adhere to formal procedures
    • broader concerns of guild, innocence, and justice are secondary considerations
    • processes mean more than the ends
  12. when and why death penalty ruled unconstitutional
    • 1972
    • procedural flaws
    • unitary trials
    • lack of sentencing standards make the death penalty arbitrary
  13. conditions of death penalty reinstatement and when was it reinstated
    • separated trial from sentencing phase
    • juries weigh aggravating factors against mitigating factors
    • aggravating outweighs mitigating factors
  14. Capital punishment cases and Weberian theory
    • Not about whether death penalty is moral or effective
    • issue about whether system follows consistent rules and procedures
  15. Effectiveness of Capital Punishment
    • deterrence-nah
    • incapacitation-less than 1% commit murders when released
    • Cost-more expensive than life
    • wrongful convictions
  16. Durkheim's definition of punishment
    a social ritual designed to enhance social cohesion by reaffirming shared moral frameworks and cultural values
  17. Durkheim and punishment
    • the nature of punishment in a society varies by that society's level of complexity 
    • traditional society- punishments tend to be harsher and more repressive 
    • modern- punishments are more humans, less repressive and restitute
  18. Evolving standards deceny
    "the 8th amendment must draw its meaning from the evolving standards of decency that mark the progress of a maturing society"
  19. Conflict and capital punishment
    • class bias-most are low econ status, cannot afford their own lawyer
    • race biased- race of victim and biased jury selection
  20. New Jim crow
    mass incarceration is similar to the original badges of slavery of the old jim crow
  21. Post civil war
    • black servitude reseestablished through sharecropping 
    • AA were characterized as slothful, hypersexual, immoral, dirty, and polluted
    • Black codes and disenfranchisment
  22. Demographic and economic change
    • expansion of ag. tech. and manufacturing 
    • black people moved to industirial northern cities and major southern cities
    • created black middle class, vote, communities, and institutions
  23. Civil rights era exposed
    • white America to the violent brutality of southern segregation 
    • cold war american hypocrisies
    • intentional racism and help establish..
    • legislation guaranteeing equal treatment
    • established color blindness
  24. Beliefs of the color blind theory
    • racism is outwards hatred and intentional discrimination
    • race no longer matters
    • US is a meritocracy
    • minorities need to get past race
    • minorities get preferential treatment
    • reverse discrimination
  25. color blind racism...
    obscures structural disadvantages faced by minorities
  26. War on crime
    • supposedly race neutral but appealed to white prejudice and stereotypes
    • severe policies decimated AA communities
  27. New Jim, crow felons, colorblindness
    • felons can be denied: housing, voting, employment, public benefits.
    • Cant's afford transportation often
    • acquire a lot of debt
    • difficult to reintegrate into society
    • continue to wear the badges of slavery
Card Set
Criminology part 2