midterm 1

  1. Which of the following contain prokaryotic cells?

    a) the archaea
    b) the protistans
    c) the fungi
    d) all of the above
    a) the archaea
  2. The molecule associated with energy transfer in living organisms is:
    a) deoxyribonucleic acid
    b) lipids
    c) ATP
    d) carbon
    c) ATP
  3. A community and its physical and chemical environment constitute:
    a) a population
    b) the biosphere
    c) an ecosystem
    d) an organ system
    c) an ecosystem
  4. The molecule of inheritance is:

    a) deoxyribonucleic acid
    b) lipids
    c) ATP
    d) carbon
    a) deoxyribonucleic acid
  5. Which of the following is not a requirement of all living things:
    a) reproduction
    b) metabolism
     c) adaptation
    d) aerobic respiration
    e) none of the above
    d) aerobic respiration
  6. The one-way flow of energy through the biosphere starts with energy input from:
    a) deoxyribonucleic acid
     b) the sun
    c) ATP
    d) aerobic respiration
    b) the sun
  7. The scientific name for human is HOMO SAPIENS. HOMO is the genus and SAPIENS is the specie. The scientific way to refer to human is:




    D) Homo sapiens
  8. Decomposers include certain bacteria and fungi.
    T
  9. Sexual reproduction results in offspring that are genetically identical to the parent.
    F
  10. The atom of element Phosphorus has 16 neutrons and 15 electrons.    

    What is the atomic number for Phosphorus atom?_____
    15
  11. Element Helium(He) has atomic number of 2.
    Do you consider this element reactive or inert?
    inert
  12. Atoms gain or lose electrons to form
     a) ionic bonds
    b) covalent bonds
    c) hydrogen bonds
    a) ionic bonds
  13. The normal range of blood pH indicates:

    a) 7.3-7.5
    b) 5.5-6.3
    c) 7.8-8.3
    d) above 8.5
    a) 7.3-7.5
  14. Two atoms of oxygen are bond together by double covalent bond. How many electrons do they share?
    a) 2
     b) 4
    c) 6
    d) 5
    b) 4
  15. Neutrons are negatively charged. T/F
    F
  16. Water is a great solvent of polar molecules. T/F
    T
  17. In a polar covalent bond, electrons are equally shared. T/F
    F
  18. Loss of a protein’s normal 3-D shape because of high temperatures or changes in pH is

       called:
    a) metabolism
     b) denaturation
    c) hydrolysis
    d) condensation
    b) denaturation
  19. In a condensation reaction, two small molecules covalently bond to form a    larger molecule. T/F
    T
  20. Ribose is a 6-carbon monosaccharide. T/F
    • F
    • 5
  21. building blocks of nucleic acids are
    nucleotides
  22. building blocks of proteins are
    amino acids
  23. building blocks of most lipids are glycerol &
    fatty acids
  24. building blocks of carbohydrates are
    monosaccharides
  25. If a solution outside of a cell contains a greater concentration of dissolved solutes   than the contents of the cell, the solution is said to be hypotonic T/F
    F

    hyper
  26. In active transport solutes are transported down their concentration gradient. T/F
    F


    Up their concentration gradient- hypo to hyper.
  27. Phospholipids contain a hydrophobic head and two hydrophillic tails. T/F
    F


    Two hydrophobic tails and one hydrophillic head.
  28. Plant cells but not animal cells have:
    a) Golgi bodies
    b) ER
       c) plastids
    d) central vacuole
    e) c & d
    e) c & d
  29. synthesis of proteins takes place in
    rough er
  30. photosynthesis takes place in
    chloroplasts
  31. synthesis of lipids takes place in
    smooth ER
  32. modify, sort, package &ship proteins & lipids
    Golgi bodies
  33. provide movement for the cells
    flagella
  34. digestion in the cell is done by
    lysosomes
  35. ATP is produced in
    mitochondrion
  36. What would be the complimentary strand of DNA to the DNA strand below?
           DNA      
    3’A-T-C-G-T-T-G-A-C-A-T-T 5’                  
     5’ T-A-G-C-A-A-C-T-G-T-A-A 3’
    5'- 3'
  37. One species’ DNA differs from others in its



    a) sugars
    b) phosphate groups
    c) nucleotide sequence
    d) all of the above
    nucleotide sequence
  38. DNA replication results in


    a) four molecules, half-old, and half-new strands
     b) two molecules, each with one old strand and one newly assembled strand of nucleotides
    c) three double-stranded molecules, one with new strands and two that are discarded
    d) none of the above
    b) two molecules, each with one old strand and one newly assembled strand of nucleotides
  39. DNA binding proteins    __________________
    stabilize the single-stranded DNA & the strands apart
  40. DNA polymerase
    adds DNA nucleotides to the primer to build the strand

    complex & important enzyne
  41. ligase
    joins Okazaki fragments seals small gaps
  42. helicase
    unwinds parental DNA double helix
  43. Primase
    produces & adds primers to template strand
  44. Watson & Crick
    discovered the double helix structure of DNA
  45. What would be the mRNA transcribed from this DNA sequence?
    DNA      
    3’T-A-C-A-T-A-A-G-G-A-A-T-T-C-T-A-C-T5/
    • mRNA      
    • 5’A-U-G-U-A-U-U-C-C-U-U-A-A-G-A-U-G-A3’
  46. The RNA molecule is
    a) a double helix
    b) single-stranded
    c) double-stranded
    d) none of the above
    b) single-stranded
  47. mRNA is produced by
    a) replication
    b) transcription
    c) translation
    b) transcription
  48. The five-carbon sugar found in RNA is:
    a) galactose
     b) ribose
    c) deoxyribose
    d) glucose
    b) ribose
  49. The loading of mRNA onto an intact ribosome occurs during
    a) translation
    b) transcription
    c) transcript processing
    d) none of the above
    a) translation
  50. The enzyme used during transcription is DNA polymerase.___ T/F
    F

    replication
  51. A codon is a double nucleotide on mRNA.___T/F
    F

    sequence of three adjacent bases on an mRNA
  52. initiation
    the first tRNA carrying methionine binds                                                                    ribosome and mRNA
  53. elongation
    tRNA molecules carrying amino acids                                                                   add to the growing polypeptide chain
  54. termination
    a stop codon is reached
  55. The final product(s) of glycolysis include:
    a) glucose molecules
    b) pyruvate molecules
    c) ATP
    d) b & c
    e) a & c
    d) b & c
  56. Oxygen is formed during:




    A) the non-cyclic pathway of ATP
  57. Cell’s ability to acquire energy and use it to, store, build, or break apart substances is

    called:
    a) biochemistry
    b) photosynthesis
    c) respiration
    d) metabolism
    d) metabolism
  58. Enzymes
    a) speed/catalyze metabolic reactions
    b) lower the activation energy
    c) get used up during a reaction
    d) a & b
    e) a & b & c
    d) a & b
  59. In the non-cyclic pathway of the light-dependent stage of photosynthesis, two   photosystems are involved. T/F
    T
  60. Glucose is formed in the light-dependent stage of photosynthesis.
    T/F
    F
  61. The starting molecule in glycolysis is pyruvate
    T/F
    F

    Glucose
  62. Krebs cycle of aerobic respiration takes place in the cytoplasm
    T/F
    F

    mitochondrian
  63. CO2 is released during Krebs(citric acid) cycle. T/F
    T
  64. Light-independent stage of photosynthesis takes place in the grana

    T/F
    F

    stroma
  65. In exergonic reactions, energy is released. T/F
    T

    Endergonic needs energy
  66. What are the levels of organization for multicelled organisms? SAMOCTOOO
    • subatomic particles,
    • atoms,
    • molecules,
    • organelles,
    • cells,
    • tissues,
    • organs,
    • organ systems,
    • organisms
  67. What are the levels of environmental organization? PCEB
    • Population,
    • community,
    • ecosystem,
    • biosphere
  68. What is the order of life diversity from most inclusive to least inclusive? DKPCOFGS
    • domain,
    • kingdom,
    • phylum,
    • class,
    • order,
    • family,
    • genera,
    • specie
  69. What is inert?
    non-reactive
  70. what are differences and similarities between prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells?
    Prokaryotic- simpler DNA, single celled

    Eukaryotic- more complex DNA, larger, multicelled, but have single cells of protista

    • Similarities-
    • DNA
    • cell membrane,
    •  cytoplasm,
    • ribosomes
  71. WHat determines an atoms physical and chemical properties?
    the number of protons and the arrangement of its electrons
  72. what are atoms with the same number of protons, but a different number of neutrons called?
    isotopes
  73. How many orbitals are in each shell?
    • Depends on the molecule, but there is
    • one orbital in the first shell, four in the second shell,
    • and 4-9 in the third shell. They can have a maximum of 18 electrons
  74. What is a negatively or positively charged atom called?
    ion
  75. what is an ionic bond?
    strong mutual attraction of two opposite charged ions
  76. whats a covalent bond
    a bond that holds together two atoms that SHARE one or more pairs of electrons
  77. What is a polar covalent bond?
    when atoms share electrons unequally, and there is a slight difference in charge. Like water.
  78. What is a hydrogen bond?
    What is a hydrogen bond?when an atom or molecule interacts weakly with a hydrogen atom already taking part in a polar covalent bond.
  79. What is cohesion?
    the capacity to resist rupturing. It helps impart surface tension and pull water through plants.
  80. What is pH?
    the measure of the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution. The greater the H+, the lower the scale
  81. alleles
    • different forms of one gene
    • mutation
  82. Spirochetes
    include the bacterium that causes syphilis
  83. Proteobacteria
    include the intestinal bacterium Escherichia coli
  84. Cyanobacteria
    include bacteria that photosynthesize.
  85. dernation
    loss of 3d shape of protein due to exposure of high heat & low ph.
  86. necletide bases (4) ATCG
    • adenine
    • thymie
    • cytosine
    • guanine
  87. cell theory
    1. All organisms are composed of one or more cells.

    2.The cell is the smallest unit having the properties of life.

    3. The continuity of life arises directly from the growth and division of single cells.
  88. peptidoglycan is absent in _____
    archaea
  89. colors of gram + & gram -
    += purple


    -= red / pink
  90. endosymbiosis bacteria vs mitochondira/ chloroplasts
    • endo:
    • 1. have circular dna
    • 2. have ribos
    • 3. reproduce
    • 4. are small (1-10mm)

    • mito/chloro:
    • 1. have their own circular dna
    • 2. have their own ribo
    • 3. can multiply
    • 4 are as small as bacteria

    they were once bacteria
  91. The nucleotides bases T and C are single-ring are called
    pyrimidines;
  92. A and G are double-ring are called
    purines
  93. where does transcription  occur
    nucleus
  94. where does translation occurs
    cytoplasm
  95. label 3'5 & 5' 3

    with DNa and mRNA stand
    dna: 3'5

    mrna: 5'3
  96. ~~~~~___ are fundamental building blocks of all matter
    atoms
  97. the smallest unit of life
    cell
  98. ____ move around for at least part of their life
    animals
  99. organisms require ___ & ___ to maintain themselves , grow & reproduce
    energy

    nutrients
  100. ___ is a process that maintains conditions in the internal environment within ranges that cells can tolerate
    homeostasis
  101. Bacteria, archaea, and eukarya are three____
    domains
  102. DNA_____



    D.
  103. ___ is the transmission of DNA to offspring



    A.
  104. ___ is the process by which an organism produces offspring
    reproduction
  105. science only addresses that which is ___
    observable
  106. ___ are the original source of variation in traits
    mutations
  107. a trait is ___ of it improves an organism's chances to survive and reproduce in its environment
    adaptive
  108. a control group is ___


    B.
  109. def emergent property
    occurs at a higher organizational lvl in nature, not at level below it
  110. def natural selection
    • E
    • differential survival and reproduction among individuals of a population that vary in details of shared traits
  111. def scientific theory
    • D
    • time -tested hypothesis
  112. def hypothesis
    • F
    • testable explanation
  113. def prediction
    • A
    •  statement of what a hypothesis leads you to expect to see
  114. def species
    • B
    • type of organism
  115. A ___ is a molecule into which a radioisotope has been incorporated
    tracer
  116. An ion is an atom that has ___


    C.
  117. A ___ forms when atoms of 2 or more elements bond covalently.
    compound
  118. the measure of an atoms ability to pull electrons away from another atom is called ___
    electronegatity
  119. atoms share electrons unequally is an  ___ bond
    polar covalent
  120. symbols for the elements are arranged according to __ in the periodic table of the elements
    atomic number
  121. liquid water has ___





    E.
  122. A ___ substance repels water
    hydrophobic
  123. hydrogen ions (H+) are a___



    D.
  124. a __ is dissolved in a solvent
    solute
  125. when dissolved in water, a ___ dontaes H+
    acid
  126. a salt releases ions other than  __ in water
    hydrogen ions (H+) or hydroxyl ions (OH-)
  127. a ___ is a chemical partnership between a weak acid or base and its salt
    buffer system
  128. def hydrophilic
    polar; readily dissolves in water
  129. def atomic number
    number of protons in nucleus
  130. def mass number
    number of protons & neutrons in nucleus
  131. def temperature
    a measure of molecular motion
  132. self quiz 3
Author
oreoscene
ID
330897
Card Set
midterm 1
Description
100 csusb
Updated