What are the two types of mood disorders?
Unipolar and bipolar
What is unipolar?
- when you have an issue with only one pole
- usually depression
What is bipolar?
- When you have extremes in both ends
- Can be at one side for a few months, days, or weeks, but then overtime you can gradually go to the other extreme
What are the nine depressive symptoms?
- depressed mood
- feelings of worthlessness
- Anhedonia- loss of pleasure of things you used to enjoy
- Cognitive deficits
- Change in weight
- Change of sleep pattern
- A change in motor activity
- Thoughts of suicide
What is the percentage rate of people with major depressive disorder committing suicide?
Up to 20%
What are the seven manic symptoms?
- Inflation of self esteem or grandiosity
- Decreased need for sleep
- Increased talkativeness
- Racing thoughts or ideas
- High level of distractibility
- Increased goal activity
- Excessive involvement of activities in pleasurable activity with high risk
What are the two types of depression?
Major depressive disorder and dysthymia
What is major depressive disorder?
it is characterized to an extreme amount of depression
What is dysthymia?
Milder form of depression, not as intense but can last longer
In the twin studies what is the concordance rate of fraternal and identical twins having dysthymia?
- Fraternal: 18%
- Identical: 37%
In the twin studies what is the concordance rate of fraternal and identical twins having Major depressive disorder?
- Fraternal: 32%
- Identical: 60%
In the twin studies what is the concordance rate of fraternal and identical twins having bipolar disorder?
- Fraternal: 17%
- Identical: 80%
What is the conclusion of the twins studies surrounding dysthymia, MDD, and bipolar?
It shows a gradient of genetic contribution comparing these disorder and the percentage difference between both fraternal and identical twins show the stronger genetic overlap the higher the chance you will get the disorder
What is pathology?
study of source and cause of a disease and it can include the diagnosis of the disease
What are the three parts of the MDD pathology?
- decrease of grey matter (cell body and dendrites)
- During depressed states: decrease activity in frontal lobe
- Specific damage in the hippocampus, hypothalamus, and amygdala
What happens to the HPA axis in MDD?
- With an increase of stress
- Hypothalamus goes into hyperdrive and increases the release of hormones
- The pituitary gland goes into hyperdrive as well and increases the release of hormones to the adrenal gland which releases an increase of glucocorticoids (cortisol,epi, ne)
- into the bloodstream
- The bloodstream sends a large amount of cortisol to the hypothalamus
What is MAO?
- the protein that breaks down other things that are in the liver
- Breaks down tyramine
What is tyramine?
chemical compound found in dairy products, meat, bread, alcohol, chocolate
What is psychosis?
having a hard time distinguishing what is real and not real, or a distortion from reality
What are the 3 behavioral symptoms of schizophrenia?
- Hearing voices (first, most common symptoms)
- Seeing things that are not there
- Conspiracy theories
What is the prevalence rate of schizophrenia?
1% with no relative having it
What is the definition of positive symptoms of schizophrenia?
things that are present that shouldn't be
What is the definition of negative symptoms of schizophrenia?
things that are not present that should be there (absence of something)
What are the two categories of positive symptoms of schizophrenia?
psychotic and disorganized
What are the two psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia?
hallucinations and delusions
What are hallucinations?
specific to one of the five senses, usually hearing or vision
What are delusions?
unfounded beliefs (conspiracies)
What are the two disorganized symptoms of schizophrenia?
innapropriate/ bazar behavior and cognitive impariment
what is cognitive impairment?
disorderly thoughts, illogical thinking, done in speech, bad grammar, incoherent
What are the 2 categories of negative symptoms of schizophrenia?
emotional dysregulation and impair motivation
what are the two symptoms of emotional disregulation in schizophrenia?
lack of facial expression (failure to emote what they are feeling) and anadonia (hard to derive pleasure out of life, seeing no point)
What are the two symptoms of impair motivation in schizophrenia?
social with withdrawal and alogia (reference to speech, reduction in speaking)
What is the concordance rate for having a spouse with schizophrenia?
What is the concordance rate for having a 2nd degree relative with schizophrenia?
What is the concordance rate for having a 1st degree relative with schizophrenia?
What is the concordance rate for having both parents with schizophrenia?
What is the concordance rate for fraternal twins with schizophrenia?
What is the concordance rate for having identical twins with schizophrenia?
what are the 2 biological conclusions about schizophrenia?
there is a genetic contribution to schizophrenia because the closer the relative is to you genetically your rate of having it goes up
Genetica cannot be the only factor that contributes because it would be 100% if you were an identical twin not 48%
What are the 2 conclusions made by the study of prevalence rate done on the general population and people with mothers who had schizophrenia?
Increased stress level seems to be a contributing factor to schizophrenia
The interaction between genetics (with having a schizophrenic mother) and stress produce amplified effects, with the interaction your chances increase of gaining the disorder, the slope is much more steeper
What is the premise of neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia?
several developmental abnormalities are risk factors for schizophrenia
What are the two pieces of evidence for the neurodevelopmental hypothesis?
minor brain abnormalities/ damaged early in life and the link to prenatal, natal, neonatal difficulties
what are the links to prenatal, natal, and neonatal difficulties of schizophrenia?
(one of more symptoms brings chance of having it up) premature birth, low birth weight, poor maternal nutrition, the season of birth effect, extreme maternal stress, head injuries, RH incompatibility, toxoplasmosis
What is RH incompatibility?
A way to test your blood type
What are the two categories of RH?
RH+ and RH-
What is RH+?
if all red blood cells have Rh protein
What is RH-?
if all red blood cells do not have Rh protein
What happens when the baby is Rh+ and the mom is Rh-?
- Baby is connected to the mother's red blood cells and if the baby's red blood cells go to the mother, her RBCs see the baby's Rh as a threat and attack it. SO the RBCs of the mother produces RH antibodies to combat the RH antigens from the baby so the RBC of the baby are getting destroyed by the mother.
- Because the job of the RBCs are to distribute oxygen and the baby's RBCs are getting destroyed by the mother, the baby is getting deprived of oxygen and the nervous system is getting damaged and caused the neurons to damage or die which can damage the baby's mental function.
What is toxoplasmosis?
- a pathogen found in cats and other felines, caused by pathogen called toxoplasma gondii
- it is transferred by feces
- lies in the immune system (dormant)cause damage to neurons in kids
- the easiest way to get it is by cleaning the litter box
- correlation or risk factor for a child with a pet cat is much stronger when they are young
What is the season of Birth effect?
- higher chance if you were born in winter
- Fall- when mother is pregnant, it is the cold and flu season, they get ill and causes distress for the baby and the pathogens they get could lead to it
- If mother has fever their baby could get a fever and get brain damage
- Viruses can cross placenta and cause damage to development in nervous system
- Look at major epidemics where mother had flu in fall, higher of babies having it
- Looking at births farther away of the equator have higher rates of having schizo
What are the 5 cognitive experiences acute effects of marijuana?
- high or buzz
- disinhibition (do things you don't normally do on the drug)
- Dream-like state
What is the change in sociability acute effect of marijuana?
may make a person want to stay in a location where they can easily use
What are the 3 medicinal effects of marijuana?
- decreased pain
- increased appetite
What are the three cognitive deficits of marijuana?
- impaired judgement
- distorted sense of time
- deficits in learning and memory, verbal, and spatial skills, slowed RT
What are the 5 physical impairments of marijuana?
- motor deficits/coordination
- slowed RT
- 1st hour: increased heart rate and blood pressure, 5x risk of hear attack
- Overdose: not known to directly kill a person but may lead to a person suffering an accident or making a fatal mistake in the environment because of the awareness is affected by the drug
- SIGNs of an overdose: rapid heart rate, hallucinations, panic attacks, extreme paranoia
What are the two types of withdrawl effects of marijuana?
Psychologically and physiological
What are the 8 psychological withdrawal symptoms of marijuana?
- decreased appetite
- weight loss
What are the 6 physiological withdrawal symptoms of marijuana?
- stomach pain
What are the 7 long term effects of marijuana?
- addictive: both physiologically and psychologically
- anxiety and/or panic attacks
- suicidal thoughts
- immunsuppression (surppression of your immune response)
- amotivational syndrome (lack of inspiration, apathy, interest)
- Lung damage
- Decreased reproductibe function
How does marijuana effect the reproductive function of men and woman?
- women: decrease lutenizing hormone (LH): supression of ovulation
- men: decrease sperm count
What are 4 things heavy marijuana users report?
- reduced happiness
- poorer mental and physical health
- more relationship problems
- reduced academic and career success (increased absences, lateness, accidents and job turnover)