Exam 5 - Chapter 35 - RX for bacterial inf

  1. What does the pathogenicity of an organism mean?
    • ability of organism to cause infection, overcome host
    • pseudomonas
    • shigella
  2. What does the virulence of an organism mean?
    • a microbe's ability to cause disease when present in minute amounts
    • measure of disease-producing potential
  3. What causes a superinfection?
    • too many host flora are killed by ABX (broad spectrum)
    • pathogenic microorganisms have chance to multiply
  4. What are the S/S of a superinfection?
    • diarrhea
    • bladder pain
    • painful urination
    • abnormal vaginal discharge
    • thrush
    • candidiasis
    • cough
  5. Broad-spectrum ABX are used for?
    • effective for wide variety of bacteria
    • Gram -
    • Gram +
  6. Narrow spectrum ABX are used for?
    • effective for narrow group of bacteria
    • examples:
    •    gram-
    •    gram+
    •    aerobic
    •    anaerobic
  7. What is the mechanism of action of PCN
    kill bacteria by disrupting cell walls with PCN's beta-lactam ring
  8. What are the adverse effects of PCN?
    • N/V/D
    • super-infections
    • anaphylaxis
    • nullify BCP's
    • rash
  9. What is the mechanism of action of cefotaxime (cephalosporins)?
    act with broad-spectrum activity against gram- organisms
  10. What is an important nursing consideration of cephalosporins?
    Ask pt about allergy to PCN - cross sensitivity
  11. What are the adverse effects of cefotaxime (cephalosporins)?
    • hypersensitivity
    • anaphylaxis
    • D/N/V
    • pain at injection site
    • ↓ PT levels
    • renal and hepatic fx
    • NO ETOH!
  12. What is the mechanism of action of tetracycline (Sumycin)?
    effective against broad range of gram+ AND gram- organisms
  13. What are the adverse effects of tetracycline (Sumycin)?
    • super-infections
    • N/V/D
    • epigastric burning
    • discoloration of teeth
    • photosensitivity
  14. What groups are tetracyclines not used for?
    • children <8 yo
    • Pregnancy Cat D
  15. What is the mechanism of action of azithromycin (macrolides)?
    effective broad spectrum for most gram+ bacteria
  16. What are the adverse effects of azithromycin (macrolides)?
    • N&V
    • abdominal cramping
    • hepatotoxicity
  17. What is the mechanism of action of gentamicin (aminoglycosides)?
    • broad-spectrum
    • reserved for serious systemic infections
    • aerobic gram- bacteria
    • some gram+
  18. What are the adverse effects of gentamicin (aminoglycosides)?
    • ototoxicity
    • nephrotoxicity
  19. What is the mechanism of action of levaquin (fluoroquinolones)?
    inhibit bacterial DNA
  20. What are the adverse effects of levaquin (fluoroquinolones)?
    • N/V/D
    • phototoxicity
    • HA
    • dizziness
    • Stevens-Johnson Syndrome
    • Black Box: tendonitis & tendon rupture
  21. Which ABX cause photosensitivity?
    • sulfa
    • levaquin
    • tetracycline
  22. What is the mechanism of action of sulfamethoxazole (Sulfonamides)?
    • inhibits bacterial metabolism of folic acid
    • UTI's
    • pneumonia, bronchitis (chronic)
    • bowel infections
  23. What are the adverse effects of sulfamethoxazole (Sulfonamides)?
    • skin rashes
    • N/V
    • agranulocytosis, thrombocytopenia
    • photosensitivity
    • anemia or other hematological disorders
  24. What are the nursing considerations of sulfonamides?
    • assess renal function
    • ↑ risk for crystalluria
    • Stevens-Johnson syndrome
  25. What is vancomycin effective for?
    • MRSA
    • C-diff
  26. What are the adverse effects of vancomycin?
    • ototoxicity
    • nephrotoxicity
    • red man syndrome
  27. What are the S/S of red man syndrome?
    • hypotension
    • red rash
    • chills
    • fever
    • itching
  28. What culture is performed for suspected sepsis?
    blood cultures
  29. what culture is performed for suspected UTI?
    Urine culture
  30. what culture is performed for suspected pulmonary infection?
    sputum culture
  31. what culture is performed for GI issues (diarrhea)?
    C. diff stool culture
Author
cbennett
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330659
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Exam 5 - Chapter 35 - RX for bacterial inf
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Exam 5 - Chapter 35 - RX for bacterial inf
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